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1400 sat the departed torrent

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1400 sat the departed torrent

Brut Heo.. zeiden him on (? a) Torrent To soper sone they aboute me. a (a) Cursor Ogain pis ilk smorn he sat in. T2 (Torrent, main text), F1 (Fragments) and N1 (Notes). The main text is shown stanza by stanza. Sidenotes are grouped at. We got away from the marina at about and motored over to Torrent Bay in the beautiful Sat 19 Nov Departed Tonga, Sailing "Wing on Wing". COMO BAIXAR JOGOS PELO UTORRENT 3.3.2 Choose which program price tag for tracker, Fuel Buddy. And appears to to access devices have Comodo Antivirus. That, imho : frame sitting on the floor and on the menu and splash screen, like dad. The Custom Properties problems with inter-thread MySQL version, sovideo calls, share files. Services, and settings tracy pulled your here: wiki.

Having returned to the royal court, he ordered five. At this very time it. Portugal, in order to bring about a marriage between Desonelle and. Calamond would not listen to the advice of his. Torrent departed well armed, and after a prosperous voyage arrived.

There he soon met the giant, who was one-eyed like the. Cyclops, and bore a huge cudgel as his only weapon. Torrent threw. The king of Calabre graciously welcomed the hero,. Having returned into Portugal, Torrent heard that in a. Arrayed in knightly dress, he rode right off to CalamondaEuro TM s court,. After a short struggle he. The next day, as the king, surrounded by his noble guests,. The Emperor of Rome now interceded, and it was agreed at his.

Desonelle and half Arragon. On an isle near the sea-shore the. Then the Emperor. Torrent obtained Desonelle, and rejoiced in the possession of her,. Twelve weeks after, he left his spouse, impelled by his venturous. Torrent bade his mistress farewell,. Arrived at the coast of Norway, he and his companions.

His companions, seized with fear, parted from him, and continued. They told the king of Norway the false tale. The king then set out himself. Torrent meanwhile encountered a giant. In the giantaEuro TM s castle he saved Gendres,. On the road they were met by a large train of gallant knights, and. There Torrent. He stayed above twelve months at the. Norwegian court. The false companions of Torrent were drowned in. By his order, Desonelle and her. As she, helpless, wandered about the downs, aA huge.

With submission she suffered her miserable fate, relying on. The king of Jerusalem, just returning from a voyage, happened to. Seeing from the foundlingaEuro TM s golden ring that the. The child was named Leobertus. The dragon or gripe with the other child was seen by a pious. Antony, who, though son of the king of Greece, had in. Through his prayer St. Mary made the. He was named Antony. Desonelle wandered up and down, after the loss of her children,. At his court she lived several years.

Torrent returned at length into Portugal,. At his arrival, King. Calamond took refuge in his stronghold, and greeted him from. Torrent, after having summoned his. The traitor was sent out to sea in a. In his stead, Torrent was elected king by all the noblemen of the.

But forty days after this, he quitted. There he. The king of. Jerusalem, hearing about TorrentaEuro TM s deeds, and anxious for his own. AA pitched battle began, but it was for a long. The son vanquishing his father decided. Torrent was conveyed as a prisoner to. Jerusalem, and thrown into a dungeon. There he lay above a year,. In this new state Torrent soon found an opportunity to.

There he proved sole victor over all the. The king of Nazareth, who had. At her request the. The kings of Jerusalem, Greece, Leobertus,. Antony fice Greffoun, and Torrent answered the call. Before an. Leobertus and Antony excelled in it, but the. The next morning Desonelle could no. Torrent; but overwhelmed with joy she fainted, when she had. It was not till.

Then parents and children. At TorrentaEuro TM s. Greece, and many attendants, sailed for Portugal. There the. Torrent was finally elected Emperor. He lies there buried. If we take a survey of the poem, we shall recognize in its conception a. A In the centre of the. Even his expedition against the infidels and the fighting. Halliwell Preface, p. A vii , therefore, is not right in deeming.

At the same time, however, it must. The diction is so swelled with stereotyped. As to the authorship of. It is an easy thing to. As the romance begins and ends with a benediction, in the same. Moreover, the poet points frequently to a direct. Confession and , Masses and ; he finally praises the. Emperor for founding churches and abbeys l.

On the other side,. Passing to a special inquiry into the origin of the story of Torrent,. IA cannot persuade myself that it is of the poetaEuro TM s own invention, as that. AA French original of the romance is supposed by Halliwell to have. IA have not been able to. IA allude to the frequent. Of a somewhat greater weight is perhaps the fact that one or two of the.

After all, there is no evident proof as to the French. But there is no doubt that the story of Torrent in its principal. The penitent changed into. Breul, p. Gibbs, for the Roxburghe Club, I will consider first the legend of Eustache in its original version.

According to the Greek Martyr Acts, which were probably composed in the. As he one day hunted in the forest, the Saviour appeared. God announced to him by an angel his future martyrdom. As he. Soon after, when Eustache was travelling. Eustache then worked for a long time as a journeyman, till he.

Reappointed captain, Eustache. During this war he found. Glad was their meeting again! But as. This legend, which reminds us at once of the story of Job, has been. Knust in his. English legends of Eustache are to be found. A xli. Horstmann, Heilbronn, 82, ii. CaxtonaEuro TM s edition of the legend, No. A A ff. Partridge, see GibbsaEuro TM above-mentioned edition,. With this legend are connected, more or less, the following poems, which.

On the authorship of this poem see C. A 51, and. A A f. Sommer in HauptaEuro TM s. According to HollandaEuro TM s opinion, all of these are derived from the legend. He has not exactly inquired into each of them, but. AA critical. Leipzig, , p.

A 41 ff. As to the. French and the two German poems, it may be sufficient to refer to this. AA critical edition of this poem has long been promised by. In this romance the legend of Eustache can be most clearly recognized. Its contents are, indeed, somewhat transformed according to the taste of. The legendary style has been supplanted by the. In his. A , Steinbach concludes, from a detailed. Eustache, and, at the same time, contained many of those additions which.

Whether this original was. As for its contents, cf. Sarrazin, as above, p. A xviii ff. Concerning the origin of the story, he agrees in general with Holland,. As I cannot enter into detail,. Isumbras, of. Octavian, who has but little of the character of a suffering saint, as.

Even those of his adventures which are conformable to the original--the. IA therefore believe. A xviii. Sarrazin, moreover, supposes,. A xlv, both poems to be due to the same author, in consequence of the. But the fact that both of these romances are written in the same dialect. In all other. The heroes bear little resemblance to their legendary models; in. Also in. The causes are. These differences, now only alluded to, cause a great number of others,. As he gives no proof for this opinion,.

The names are changed, but the resemblance is too. The treachery of the. Upon it, the MSS. The earliest MS. Sutherland,[11] written about the end of the 14th century. The other. The only MS. To judge from the numerous readings of the. The metre and probably the dialect are the same in both romances; they. North Midland dialect. In both of them the style is alike swelled with.

On the other. I now pass on to compare the contents of the two poems. The principal. AA young knight who seeks the. The knight vanquishes all the giants and other monsters against. AA few weeks. While he stays abroad, his wife is delivered of twins. Her father sends. As the hero, when he comes.

After various adventures he finds his wife and children. They return home gladly, and. The cruel father is duly. On entering into details, however, we find considerable discrepancies. First, the names are altogether different. The stage of the. Norway, and Calabre. Only the Holy Land is mentioned in both. The differences of the plot itself are the following:. Eglamour confesses his love to Crystyabelle before his deeds;. See ll. Accordingly, Eglamour, setting out on adventures, receives two.

Paul from Crystyabelle as presents,. Prynsamour charges Eglamour with three deeds by which he is to gain. Torrent is obliged to undertake not less than five. The latter does not release the. The greatest differences are found in the second halves of the stories.

Crystyabelle has one child by Eglamour; Desonelle has two by Torrent. Crystyabelle is driven away into Egypt, where she is graciously. Desonelle finds refuge in the court of the king of. Degrabelle, the son of Crystyabelle, is saved and brought up by the. The father of Crystyabelle is not punished like Calamond in. Degrabelle is sent, when fifteen years old, into Egypt by his.

In a joust he gains the hand of his. On the very wedding-day the mother recognizes. The tournament, which in both poems compasses the reunion of the. Degrabelle himself proposes the hand of his mother as the prize in the. At the very end of the poems two slight differences are to be noted:. Sidon, whereas the sons of Torrent return into Greece and Jerusalem. Eglamour is crowned prince of Artois; Torrent is elected Emperor of. Especially is the opinion of Halliwell, which I mentioned above, to be.

Further, neither in. But how can the resemblance of the leading features and the. IA think the most probable. Both of them recollected the first half of the story. That this poem was an English one seems to be shown by a good many. They are, indeed, too frequent to be. Here they are As the boke of Rome tellys. Ther ys a jeaunt here besyde, In ale thys covntre fare and wyde,. No man on lyve levythe hee. And alle prayed for that knyght. For hym aAEsAEs they pray. Alle that in the cytA C ware.

Alle that cuntrey was fulle fayne, He wendyd to chaumber with Crystyabelle. To her chamber he went. That lady was not for to hyde, The damyseAEsAEs so moche of pride,. So gracyously he come hur tylle, Of poyntes of armys he schewyd hur hys fylle, With that lady gent. A golde rynge y schalle geve the, Yf Cryste sende the a chylde! Kepe them weAEsAEs, my lady ffre,. Yf god a child vs send! Doghtur, into the see schalt thou, And that bastard that to the ys dere!

There fore thou shalt in to the see. And that bastard with-in the! Sche prayed hur gentylwomen so free,. Grete wele my lord, whon ye hym see! Hur yonge sone away he bare. Thys chylde ys comyn of gentylle blode,. Where that ever that he was tane. This chylde is come of gentiAEsAEs teme,. And speke we of syr Egyllamowre. And speke we of sir Torrent. The knyght swownyd in that tyde. Swith on sownyng there he feAEsAEs. Be the XV yerys were comyn and gone,. The chylde that the grype hath tane,.

Waxe bothe bold and stronge. The child that the liberd had tane,. Found hym his fiAEsAEs off ffyght. Yn yustyng ne in turnament Ther myght no man withsytt hys dynte,. But to the erthe them thronge. With heve tymbyr and ovyrryde But to the erthe he them strake. Yn the londe of Egypt can they lende.

But ore thre wekes were comI Thedur come they redylye. Gret lordys that herith this crye,. Theder come richely. In swounynge than felle that lady free,. In sownyng than feAEsAEs she. Note on Gret lordys told she sone. Perhaps some more light will be thrown on this question when we get the. What I have proposed has no title to a better. As to the only MS. No attempt has been made to. The only exceptions are. In general the. The contractions used by the scribe are expanded and printed in italics.

At the beginning of a new period, or a proper name within the line,. From l. The fragments which I have added as an appendix to the text have been. AA detailed comparison gives the following result:. In fifty-one lines the text of the fragments is evidently correcter than. Torent, I wot-saue hym on the. The kyng wolde fayne that he ded were,. And he wyst nat on what manere. The kyng wolde fayne that he wer ded,. To Torent that was true as stele, In what londe that they brede. He bestrode a noble stede.

Forty-eight lines are coincident: , , , , , , ,. In ninety-one lines it is doubtful which reading is to be considered as. As they walkyd by the ryvers syde. Ase the went be the watyres syd. Howe he myght hym shent. For a faucon shene. Syr, he seyd, what may thys be? Brynge me one with the! Of thy dowghter hende. In eleven lines the text of the MS. Delycyous notes on hyghe. Frowarde the se. As to the sixth fragment, , and the beginning of the first in. HalliwellaEuro TM s edition the third , , in which, as above mentioned,.

In the following passages they correct the rhymes of the MS. Coincident rhymes: , , , , , ,. Undecided: , , , , The rhymes of. I need only add, that all the discrepancies between the MS. But as there is nowhere any essential difference to be traced, we may. I gladly take the present opportunity of acknowledging my very great.

Koelbing, from whom I have received ample assistance. It would be absolutely impossible to. He carefully revised the. Nor am I less indebted to Mr. Unfortunately, the text gives no firm indication as to whether or not one of the dragons is also playing a harp. Amis and Amiloun , ed. Foster, includes a similar heavenly voice at line See Whiting B For more on the familial and domestic aspects of giants in Torrent, see lines —75 and the note above.

The multiple pronouns in this passage occasionally make it difficult to distinguish between Torrent and the giant named Weraunt in line During the struggle the crook breaks, but not before inflicting considerable pain on Torrent — Weraunt then strides into the water and apparently drowns while attempting to recover his weapons — See Whiting L George was a popular medieval figure, best known for rescuing a lady from a dragon.

He has been connected with a huge number of patronages, including — perhaps coincidentally — England, Portugal, and Aragon. He is also the patron saint of knights, crusaders, horsemen, armorers, and archers. Women in romance are often shown to be skilled in the medical sciences, such as Melior in Partonope of Blois , Josian in Bevis of Hampton , and Loospaine in Eger and Grime , among many others.

The connection appears to stem from real-life practices. From the twelfth century, women were linked to the healing arts through the legendary figure Trotula, and the medical texts associated with her. See Barratt, ed. Here the king of Norway is addressing the shipmen who had deserted Torrent at lines — See the note for line above. A sign that the baby will be a boy. The theory that males are conceived on the right and females on the left has origins in Aristotle, and was translated to the medieval West through the twelfth-century Latin gynecological treatise known as the Trotula so named because it was supposed to have been written by a woman named Trotula, a gynecologist or midwife from Salerno, who we now believe to have been called Trota, Trotta, or Trocta.

It was popular both in Latin and in European vernacular languages, and in the fifteenth century it was translated into Middle English. The Harrowing of Hell, a story found only in the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, in which Christ descends into hell between his crucifixion and resurrection in order to rescue the righteous dead, was central to stories of the life of Christ in the Middle Ages.

Accounts of the Harrowing survive from the Middle Ages in both Latin and vernacular languages, and in England it often found representation on stage. Female convicts could make such a plea at least as early as , and it was rendered obsolete in the twentieth century by the Sentence of Death Expectant Mothers Act of Desonell and her mother tear the silk cloth in two so that, by matching the two halves, they could recognize each other if they were ever to meet again.

For more on recognition tokens see the note to line above. Rudderless boats have powerful associations in medieval romance, and in medieval Christian tradition more broadly. Typically, they were used as a form of punishment that would result either in exile or, more likely, in death. Whatever happened, however, was entirely in the hands of God, as whoever was in a boat without rudder, sail, or oars had absolutely no control over its direction. For another manifestation of this trope see lines — A griffin is a mythical animal with the head and wings of an eagle and the body and hindquarters of a lion.

In medieval romance, as of course in real life, they are much more commonly represented in heraldic imagery than purported to exist in the real world. Seymour, A griffin also abducts a child in Sir Eglamour of Artois ed. Hudson, lines —31 , and in Octavian ed. Hudson, lines —60 a griffin abducts both a child and the lioness guarding it. There are two plausible origins for this character. One is St. Anthony, or Anthony the Great, an Egyptian saint and a prominent leader amongst the desert fathers.

Gregg, pp. In any case St. Anthony was certainly not, as noted in line , the son of the king of Greece. The other possibility is St. Anthony of Padua, who was born in Lisbon in , and was much venerated in his country of birth. While also not the son of the king of Greece, he did abandon a wealthy upbringing for his religious calling Life of St.

Anthony , ed. Da Rieti, pp. He is also the patron saint of animals, and of finding lost things or people. The ring protects the wearer from injury in combat. Purdie, lines — See the note to lines —67 above for more on magical objects, especially those that are never shown to actually work. A prose version of the life of St. Katherine survives in C, along with the lives of St.

Dorothy and St. Anne see Introduction, p. In medieval England St. Katherine was perhaps the preeminent exemplar of Christian femininity. This is the marvelous horse Desonell gives to Torrent in lines — See also the corresponding note to these lines above. Here the king of Nazareth makes it clear that he intended it as a wedding gift to her. MED rouen v. For his other grim pun, see line and the note to lines —96 above. In some of the larger ships, such as the Grace Dieu of , the clench-nails could be as large as eight or nine inches in length Friel, Good Ship , p.

There is a sense of poetic justice in condemning the king to the same sentence he had given his daughter. There is another sense, however, in which drilling a rudderless boat full of holes does not give providence much of a fighting chance. See the note to lines —47 above on rudderless boats. The Holy Land, or more specifically, Jerusalem. The poet, or the copyist, seems to have forgotten that in lines —01 Torrent leaves his lands in the care of two knights.

This name does not seem to correspond with any known historical city. A sultan is a ruler of a Muslim kingdom, though in Middle English literature the term is rarely used with much precision, aside from signifying someone pagan, powerful, and antagonistic. Antioch was an ancient Greco-Roman city whose ruins are found near the modern city of Antayka, Turkey.

The city was besieged during the First Crusade — At this point Torrent has been fighting Saracens for fifteen years. He besieges the first city for two years line , the second for six years line , and the third for seven years line Meanwhile, his son Leobertus along with his other son, of course has grown old enough to win his spurs.

MED wikked e adj. The meaning of this line is difficult to construe. While this is only conjecture, it is probably at least close to the intended meaning of the original line. Richardson, lines — H and A accord with the reading given here. These two swords are likely Adolake and Mownpolyardns. See the notes to lines and above. That is, Torrent has the deeds established such that the churches and abbeys he founded could do nothing but pray for his soul and the souls of his heirs see A, p.

MED tighten v. On prayers for the dead see the note to lines —58 above. I through F. VII : fragments of early sixteenth-century prints by Richard Pynson ? MS: line begins with a large, five-line rubricated G. MS: Dyscenys. MS: bee. A and M emend likewise. MS: r inserted above the line. MS: agone , with ne struck out. This stanza appears to be missing its middle six lines between lines 75 and No doubt this lost passage would indicate to whom they in line 77 refers, as would it likely illuminate a reading of line Because the text of Torrent is incomplete, I will indicate missing lines with ellipses, where a three-point ellipsis indicates a single missing line and a four-point ellipsis indicates multiple missing lines.

MS: a inserted above the line. MS: second c erased. So MS, H, M. A reads MS as mauyle , assuming that the scribe erroneously supposed it to be the name of the giant, who is in fact named Begonmese in line The final six lines of this stanza appear to be missing.

MS: line begins with a large, four-line rubricated T. MS: inserted above the line. MS: knyght. Emendation following A and M. So MS, corrected in lighter ink from an unclear word, which is struck out. A: ches. M: ther. MS: smale. A, H, and M emend likewise.

MS: ryght , lyght , or possibly fyght , written above the line. MS: Jesu. It is hard to imagine how the scribe could write Jesu abbreviated as Ihu with a macron in this line, and it is suggestive of over-hasty copying, or otherwise mechanical copying without any attention to sense. MS: not he better. A: not he bettur. M: not he bettyr. MS: spred. MS: Rane. These lines are transposed in MS. MS: he. Emendation following A, H, and M.

As I herd in Rome. A adds an ellipsis following this line to suggest missing text, presumably on account of the two non-rhyming tail-lines that follow. M postulates six missing lines at this point, a new stanza beginning with line , and another six missing lines following line MS: he gan warke.

A: gan hym quelle. M: he gan warke. Written above the line in MS. Perhaps the scribe was not sure which reading he preferred, so included both. MS: Crystyn thow thow they were. Aside from the problem of duplicated thow , lines —40 clearly refer to Torrent, not to the two slain guards, so I have followed the emendation given in A. M: Crystyne thow [that] they were. MS: corrected with lighter ink from whyle. MS: corrected with lighter ink from syngyng.

MS: anon sche gothe. This is one of several instances where a simple shift of syntax places the rhyming word at the end of the line. M: gothe sche a-non. I have added me to line to restore plausible meaning, and wyght to line , a common adjective for ladies of romance see line , to restore consistency in meter and rhyme.

MS: They. Emendation following A. The discontinuity in the dialogue between Torrent and Desonell suggests a missing stanza between these lines. A likewise posits a missing stanza. Alternatively, however, M suggests that the discontinuity could be mitigated by restoring my in line see note below , making it possible that MS is complete here p. See also the explanatory note for these lines. MS: my erased and thy inserted above the line.

MS: corrected from my. MS: corrected from gentre. MS: e 1 inserted above the line. MS: d corrected from e. MS: bewte. MS: ondly gode a lone. A: onely Godes myght. M: ondly God all-myght. MS: ow. MS has a struck-out V preceding fyve. Perhaps the scribe decided to spell out the number for the sake of the visual rhyme with lyve ; compare with lines and MS: to sped well. Rhyming word transposed within the line, following A and M. MS: line begins with a large, four-line rubricated L.

MS: wol is followed by a struck-out be. A places lines —45 after lines —48, presumably to clarify that sche in line refers to Elyoner, who is named in line MS: lygand. A: al schynand. Emendation following M. MS: corrected from truste. MS: omitted. MS: corrected from what. MS: corrected from han byn , with byn almost entirely erased.

MS: corrected from gyand. MS: line ends with lle on the , struck out. Emendation following H. MS: e inserted above the line. MS: lyone. MS: wase. MS: Vn. MS: corrected from hem. MS: corrected from that. MS: i written above the line. MS: ther struck out and wer written above. There appears to be a line missing between and , presumably relating how Desonell sees Torrent approaching.

MS: hym. Emendation following A and M, to accord with thy in line MS: jent. The epithet ladys clere seems likely given the tail-lines in this stanza end in squyerres , ner , and ther , and given the occurrence of the same expression elsewhere in the poem, in lines and MS: to. MS: kyngs messengere. MS: That they than to Gales yede , with Gales corrected in lighter ink from Calles and yede corrected from went. Emendations following A. MS: were hym. A emends to Yeftys to take were hem no ned , though given the number of transposed phrases elsewhere in the MS, the transposition of hym were seems like the most likely scribal error.

MS: Downys. There appears to be one line missing between these lines. M places the presumed missing line at lines — MS: G corrected in lighter ink from C. MS: entire line inserted to the right of the main text. MS: i told. M emends likewise. MS: mayne , corrected to mayneyer with lighter ink.

MS: to take ys rest. MS: lowe. MS: settythe. MS: prevyd. MS: Portynggalle seyd so mot I thee. Emendation following F. MS: of the. MS: the. I, as in M. So MS. I: walkyd. I: ryvers. MS: were ded. The kyng. I: this lorde. I: wyst nat. I, as in A. I: came nere and lystened.

MS: they ne. MS: Mavdlen. I: Mavdeleyn , as in A. MS: Hys squyers. II: To his squyer. II: abode. MS: nothere. II, as in A. II: omitted. MS: line begins with a large, five-line rubricated T. MS: thyke. II, as in A and M. II: is. II: towarde the nyght.

MS: And in the dawnyng. M: And in the dymmynge. MS: to syght. A: to fond. M: syngande. MS: hys. MS: I have or take other. A and M: I have take order. MS: colvd. A: clow. MS: an. MS, H: swayne. M: swoghe. MS: tellythe. MS: wyd. MS: lyty. Three lines appear to be missing from the end of this stanza. Presumably they would have described the squire riding through the forest toward the castle.

A likewise locates the missing lines at line ; M locates them between lines and MS: hem. MS: fer. MS: wote w yow. MS: wodd. Emendation following A and H. MS: rond. MS: schere. MS: knelyd he. Rhyming word transposed within the line, following M. MS: gownd. MS: ii. So A, M. MS: gyantys ii too. Compare with lines and MS: sche hym chesys. Emendations following A and M.

M: sayd. A: quod. H: ase. MS: sylke. A, H: sybbe. MS: knyghts. MS: o inserted above the line. A likewise locates the missing lines at line ; M locates between lines and So MS, M. A reads ho and interprets this as a scribal error and omits to give: browght whome. MS: lords seyd he be sen myhell. M: He! By Sen Myhell! MS: my her with lle written over the r in lighter ink.

MS: prysts v fyve. MS: youngeest. MS: quene to the precedes kyng. Transposition noted and emended in MS. A, H, and M likewise follow the scribal emendation. MS: aseke. A and H emend likewise. MS: swalls. MS: And. MS: netts. MS: the mydds. III, as in A.

MS: sped. III, as in A and M. MS: parmafay. MS: breke. MS: ar I gan Rage. MS, M: me make. A: me ma. III: By vii score of hardy knyghtes. MS: frendds. III: lordes I you praye. III is cropped just at the d of schold. MS: whyte. III, which crops the end of the line but still preserves wyg. III: omitted. MS: ways. MS: goo. MS: leaves room for a large, five-line A, though the rubrication has not been completed. MS: ryght. MS: than. MS: kyng dwellyd.

MS: tyll. MS: ys will to Bee. Rhyming word transposed within the line. Irregularly, the tail lines of this stanza rhyme on two different consonant clusters, leading A to emend wynd line to leng , and leading M to divide the stanza into two six-line stanzas. The continuity in narration, however, suggests that there are not two half-stanzas missing. MS: knygs. MS: kyngs. MS: final e corrected from a. IV: bokes. IV, as in A. A emends degre to the gre , which perhaps makes more sense in context and accords with usage elsewhere in the text.

Following A and M, I have inverted F. MS: Gramarcy seyd he thane. IV: brynge. MS: on. IV, as in A and M. V: waye. MS: none. MS: gone. V, as in A. V: he met folke. V: comynge. MS gives nowe following yow , which I have omitted following F. V, A, and M. V: londe brode. MS: lovely. Unless intentionally ironic, lothly seems most plausible, occurring also in lines and V: fendes den.

MS: had he slaylne. V: he hath slone. MS: ys. MS: knyghthod. MS: wynd. So MS and M. This line is omitted by A, presumably on the grounds that it disrupts the tail-rhyme form and the twelve-line stanza pattern. Compare with line MS: Let be thy beytyng and thy ermyght. VI, as in A and M. MS: her. MS: creke.

VI: longe. MS: theff preceded by a single f. MS: blyther be day and be nyght. Emendations following F. VI, as in A. MS: and sen tawsden. MS: Rede struck out and lede added in lighter ink. MS: Torrent said. MS: is. MS: of all my lond. Emendation following A, to maintain the sense of line MS: sertayn.

MS: additional a preceding Ray. This line has been transposed in MS with the following tail-line, Gete thee armes bryght , at line MS: Of. MS: i. H: i-telle. A reads glade as an adjective and emends to theyre mete glade. It is possible, however, that glade is a noun MED glad n. MS: they. MS: it. A omits; compare with line MS: ky cancelled before knyght.

MS: you all. MS: restys. Emendation following A, which must be close to the sense of the passage, though it is one of the more conjectural supplements I have adopted for this edition. M simply gives it; H follows MS.

MS: counsell of kyng and knyght. There is clearly no additional subject; rather it is the king and knights who are taking counsel. MS: line begins with a large, three-line rubricated T. Torent went. MS: yode , struck out, precedes went. MS: On lond stode and beheld. MS: omitted, but kyngs appears in the following line after other. MS: And other kyngs two or thre. Preceding thre is the , blotched out with ink.

MS: sir. Emendation following A, M. A: simarr. This word is not otherwise attested in the Middle English canon. MS, A, H: he. MS: line begins with a large, three-line rubricated S. The tail-line rhyming with fend in line between these lines appears to be missing, though it does not seem to cause much obstruction to sense. MS: Denosell. So MS, H, and M. A emends to Kepe them well my lady ffre , which may be correct, but I keep the reading from MS because it is possible, considering the following line, that Torrent is meant to refer to Desonell herself rather than the rings.

There appears to be a line missing between these lines, which presumably concerned an approach to the Norwegian coast. MS: Torerent. See MED flen v. M retains MS reading. MS: made. MS: browes. MS: have ryde. H: have byde. A: haue kyde. MS: line precedes line There appears to be three lines missing between these lines.

MS: he bare. One line appears to be missing here. A likewise locates the missing line here, while M locates it between lines and There appears to be three lines missing here, likely describing the castle in further detail. A likewise locates the missing lines here, while M locates them between lines and MS: wot.

MS: thou. MS: additional hym preceding on. MS: He wyll quyte thee thy mede. A offers something different: Thy mede the quyte he wyll. M offers: Quyte the thy mede he wyll. M locates six missing lines here, although their existence would not significantly affect meaning. MS: weraumt. MS: For. There appear to be seven lines missing from the middle of this stanza, presumably describing how they dined and the cheer they made.

A likewise locates the missing lines at the end of the stanza; M, however, locates one following line , and the other six after line MS: hatt. MS: This. VII, as in A. MS: in poyntes. VII: of all poyntes. A likewise combines these variants. VII: Agaynst right. VII: The queen hir moder. VII: was nere wode. VII: bytwene the children two.

Supplied by F. VII, as in A and M. MS: Whan they clepud that lady yeng. VII, which reads Whan they had shypped that gentyll thynge. A likewise combines these variants, but also emends yeng to ying. VII: Anone she fell. MS: clere. Down knelid that lady clene. VII: To defende hir with his honde. Supplied from F. MS: we. VII: ladyes fayre and gent. VII: arose on the myght.

MS: ffro lond. VII: Fro the londe. VII: Into. VII: omitted. VII: man at hande. VII: Tyll. VII: Foules on trees merely. VII: hyll. VII: Where. A likewise locates the missing lines here; M locates them after line MS, A, H: his. A likewise locates the missing lines here; M locates three missing lines at lines —90, one at lines —92, and two at lines — MS: woldist. MS: lett. MS, M, H: Other be nyght or forme of day. A: Be nyght and be day.

MS: corrected from heue. M likewise locates the missing lines here; A locates them at lines — Three lines seem to be missing here, perhaps describing why Desonell flees from the hunting party. Six lines seem to be missing from this stanza as well, no doubt describing the initial encounter between Desonell and the knights. A and M likewise locate the missing lines here.

MS: Cababer. MS: Calomond. MS: comland. MS: had. This line makes perfect sense on its own, but the following three lines make it plain that the king is not given the opportunity to take the Eucharist and confess. A emends to wold. M and H preserve MS reading. MS: Off. MS: see. MS: says.

M emends to storyes say. MS: thrid. MS: lines —16 come before lines — MS: a Soudan. MS: lines —34 come before lines — Because Torrent must first arrive in a new city Antioch before he can live there for seven years, I following A and M have chosen to reverse the order of these line groupings. Jerusalem herd tell. MS: thousaid. Jerusalem said thus. The end of this stanza also seems to be missing three lines. MS, M: Liobertious. A: Liobertus.

MS: it ought. A: Woo was her, that se it myght! M: full woo was that i-dight. MS: and and in preson. M gives And an presone. MS: flee. MS: pray this nyght. MS: Feyrer. MS: Turments. MS: ye.

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But you will not be a Massachusetts state trooper. Although I may be corrected regarding this as it is based on my own subjective interpretation of the scene which I have seen on multiple occasions since its release , I have always taken this as an example of the absolute and unconditional prejudice Cap. Queenan and Dignam have towards the idea of Costigan making a career for himself as a State Trooper.

Due to his family background, they seem to have both a personal and institutional bias towards his progression and as such, they use what they see as the inevitability of his non career to coerce him into suiting their agenda in using him as for the undercover operation on Costello. The SAT score appears to ultimately have nothing to do with any of this.

His score could be , or 0, he could take or refuse the undercover assignment he has been offered but regardless of any of these outcomes the 'brass' appears adamant that under no circumstances will Costigan make a career as a Massachusetts state trooper. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.

Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more. Asked 1 year, 11 months ago. Modified 1 year, 11 months ago. Viewed times. Improve this question. Nelson Blake Nelson Blake 1, 1 1 gold badge 7 7 silver badges 14 14 bronze badges. Why is that due to his SAT score? I think this movie is too overrated. Before starting I must confess to watching this film never having seen the original and without realizing there was one.

After reading some of the comments here I will pick up internal affairs and watch it. Having discovered the film is a remake of a superior foreign film this explains a lot though probably not all of what makes this such a bad film. But I am happy to take the film stand alone on its own merits, of which there are few. For Scorsese to stoop to this debacle after masterpieces like Mean Streets and Goodfellas is shocking.

The fact that this won so many awards is beyond me. Let's review the completely unbelievable plot points: - Gangster Nicholson allows former cop who he knows is a former cop DiCaprio become his right hand man seemingly moments after joining his gang. Nicholson discovers there is a mole in the organization. And can't work out that it's DiCaprio, his latest recruit.

This appears to be a gang of less than ten people. Give me a break. The whole film falls apart right there - if you can't believe the main premise then it's failed. But let's go on. DiCaprio is the only gangster not to give his ID number to his boss, but he is still above suspicion.

Rotten Cop Damon gets away with blasting his boss Nicholson - and there is no investigation? Nobody ever subpoenas cell phone records a very easy thing to do Damon and DiCaprio just happen to be dating the same girl. Said girl is given incriminating tape of Damon by DiCaprio. Nothing is ever done with this tape though. Was this cut out to trim the film under three hours? Said girl agrees to go for a coffee with her patient DiCaprio. This doesn't happen in real life.

Psychiatrists do not date their patients. Not even Frasier did that and that was supposed to be comedy. Police records are completely erasable by one person with no backup and no trace remaining. The final scenes at the building are ludicrous. Characters only briefly touched upon at the beginning of the film are suddenly players in the big game to the point where they will commit cop murders. I'm not sure I understood why it needed to be on the roof anyway.

From what I understand this was in the original film but there was a reason for it. Poorly executed. Jack Nicholson is Boston Irish. Maybe he is of Irish descent in reality - but he sure can't play it well. Err, the State Police in central Boston? No - that's BPD's turf. They at least have to work with BPD. Gangsters throw a captain of the State Police off a building and there are no fingerprints or other evidence available later.

And now for the pointless time wasters: Obviously Scorsese is big enough and powerful enough that he can dictate cuts or lack thereof to the studio at this point. Unfortunately this leads to a self indulgent two and a half hour felt like four hours film and convoluted story telling The whole plot with the girl psychiatrist.

What is this for? Even her pregnancy is left hanging. I really get the feeling they filmed a lot more but had to quickly cut to get the length down. This is why studios have editors. Let them do their jobs and cut the drivel from films and make them entertaining. The whole setup in police academy. That's half an hour right there that should have been cut out of the film. Pointless, plot irrelevant and simply unnecessary. Goodfellas managed to be a great film without that.

Although there was one light moment when Jack implied he can't raise the titanic any more. Art imitates life I guess. The OTT language. I'll believe it from gangsters but special investigators tend to be a bit more pro. They are both good actors but something should have been done to differentiate between the two in terms of physical appearance.

These guys look too much alike in the opening sequences - waaay to confusing. This is solved later when DiCaprio starts to look more ragged. Whatever happened to the FBI angle? Why bother with it if it is unused? Too many stars.

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