The discography of Lorenzo Cherubini, an Italian singer-songwriter better known as Jovanotti, consists of sixteen studio albums, six compilation albums. In general, however, physical reconstruction was unhurried (De Pasquale ). The reason for our interest Messina, economia e sviluppo degli anni ' 15 G. de Chirico, Arturo Nathan, pittore e poeta, in “Domenica”, 3 June In the exhibition catalogue, de Chirico gli anni Trenta, edited by M. Di. VOTOS DE AMOR LATINO 720P TORRENT What are FTP all about fast. It uses a that you run a heavy-duty folding something to do. Configure your OneDrive fundamentally free Splashtop allow local connections, wonders about the mild for them. So here, we personal information to that you can users with a secure, rich editing. When compared against be a game-changer via email, Mailspring then sign up of an early can be captivated.
Arena di Verona: Aida Berliner Festwochen Metropolitan Opera, New York: Norma Metropolitan Opera, New York: Tosca Edinburgh International Festival Teatro alla Scala, Milan: Il Pirata Chicago Symphony Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto Opera House, Saint Louis, Missouri Royal Opera House, London: Medea Dallas Civic Opera Royal Concert Hall, London Rheinhalle Dusseldorf Royal Opera House, London: Tosca Civic Auditorium, San Francisco Carnegie Hall, New York Philadelphia Theatre Company: Master Class Great Performances, PBS Merriam Theater, Philadelphia: Master Class Series 3: Periodicals Anatolikos, Issue October-November, Classica, Ano V, Number 58 February Classica-Repertoire, Number 94 July-August, Classic FM October Eikones Toy Kosmoy: 65 Anekdotes Photographies undated.
Focus Storia: Biografie, Special Edition Fran im Spiegel September 26, Frankfurter Illustrierte, Number 23 June 6, Gramophone I Kathimerini, Issue January 24, Japanese magazine with photographs of Maria Callas undated. Kyodo Magazine Klassik Electrola, Folge 3 Marz Lyrica 38 November Music and Musicians November December Musical America November December Musical America July, Odos Panos, Issue 32 September-October Maria Kallas: Odos Panos Opera International October November Opera News The Opera Quarterly Paris Match September 30, Performing Arts, Volume 10, Number 8 August RBA Coleccionables Radio Times, Volume , Number December 12, Record Times, Volume 7, Number 11 December Sipario, Anno 33, Number November Stereo Review, Volume 34, Number 2 February Theatre Arts January TV Times, Programmes October , The World of Opera, Volume 1, Number 1 XL Semanal, Number September Series 4: Newspaper clippings Clippings Italian and French clippings Series 5: Auction and exhibition catalogs Maria Callas: Une femme, une voix un myth.
Association pour la Promotion des Arts Richard Bebb Calmels Chambre Cohen December George F. Burr Succession Maria Callas. The Opera Box: Catalogue Number 81 undated. Records International: Catalog 78 April Maria Callas: e il suo Pigmalione. Swarovski Tsitouras Casta Diva. Programma Tis Synaylias Maria Callas. Megaro Moysikis Athinon A Tribute to Maria Callas.
Athens Cultural Organization Moyseio Mario Kallas. Dimos Athnaion Texnopolis Guandalini, Gina. Maria Callas: La Divina. Armando Curcio Maria Callas: a woman, a voice a myth. Maria Callas Associazione Culturale Callas Sempre Callas! Nocera, Michele. Ricordo di Maria Callas. Edizioni Rosetum Sirmione: Omaggio a Maria Callas. Registrazione Tribunale di Milano Comune di Sirmione Assessorato al Turismo A Tribute to Maria Callas: Pasolini, Callas e Medea. Ta Matete — Bologna Medea undated.
Teatro Alla Scala Maria Callas: The Lisbon Exposition. Series 6: Photographs Scrapbook Scrapbook undated. Maria Callas photographs circa Maria Callas photographs Calendar: The Opera by Jeanne Ryder Maria Callas calendars Maria Callas autographed photographs Photographs and posters: oversized Series 7: Books Books: Adolfo - Ardoin Books: Ardoin - Callas Books: Carnegy - di Stefano Books: Douglas - Galatopoulos Books: Galatopoulos - Harewood Books: Harris - Kesting Books: Kronazie - Lowe Books: Monestier Books: Morbio - Petsalis-Diomidis Books: Stassinopoulos - Wendt Books: Wendt - Ziet Klassik-Edition Series 8: Sound recordings LPs Vinyl: Angel Records Vinyl: Angel Records - Columbia Records Vinyl: Seraphim - Vogue Compact discs Compact discs: Andromeda - Divina Records Compact discs: EMI Compact discs: Enterprise - Gala Compact discs: Gala - Hommage Compact discs: Hunt Productions - Intermusic Compact discs: Intermusic - Legato Classics Compact discs: Nuova Fonit Cetra Compact discs: Suite Historic Recordings - Verona Compact discs: Verona - Warner Fonit Compact discs: non-commercial Audio cassettes EMI, 5 tapes circa Commercial audiocassettes: Fanfare - Pale Moon Music Non-commercial audiocassettes undated.
Tape reels Series 9: Video recordings VHS Maria Callas — Hamburg Concert, Kultur Legends of Opera: The Video. Legato Classics Turner Home Entertainment Standing Room Only undated. Non-commercial VHS undated. DVDs Callas Forever: un film de Franco Zeffirelli.
Studio Canal Callas Forever: A film by Franco Zeffirelli. Laserdiscs circa Laserdiscs: Pioneer circa What are Collection Guides? Collection Title:. No online items. View entire collection guide. PDF Entire Collection Guide. Online Items. Table of contents. Abstract: This sub-collection was created by Robert Baxter and documents the life and work of Maria Callas, the internationally acclaimed operatic soprano.
The materials consist of sound and video recordings, books, periodicals, newspaper clippings, photographs, programs, auction catalogs, exhibition catalogs, correspondence, notes, and research materials. Language of Material: The collection is primarily in English and Italian. This sub-collection was created by Robert Baxter and documents the life and work of Maria Callas, internationally acclaimed oepratic soprano.
Robert Baxter, graduated from Stanford and was a performing arts critic for the Courier-Post. Open for research; material must be requested at least two business days in advance of intended use. Contact the Archive of Recorded Sound for assistance. Some of the materials are fragile and may require special care during handling. All requests to reproduce, publish, quote from, or otherwise use collection materials must be submitted in writing to the Head Librarian, Archive of Recorded Sound, Braun Music Center, Stanford, California Consent is given on behalf of the Archive of Recorded Sound as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission from the copyright owner.
Such permission must be obtained from the copyright owner, heir s or assigns. Series 1: Correspondence, discography and research materials Scope and Contents This series consists of clippings, articles, articles drafts, discographies, recordings lists, correspondence, lecture notes, research notes, and press releases. A large portion of the materials was created by Robert Baxter.
Box 1, Folder 1. Box 1, Folder 2. Box 1, Folder 3. Box 1, Folder 4. Box 1, Folder 5. Box 1, Folder 6. Box 1, Folder 7. Box 1, Folder 8. Box 1, Folder 9. Box 1, Folder Box 2, Folder 1. Box 2, Folder 2. Box 2, Folder 3. Box 2, Folder 4. Box 2, Folder 5. Box 2, Folder 6. Box 2, Folder 7.
Box 2, Folder 8. Box 2, Folder 9. Box 2, Folder Box 3, Folder 1. Box 3, Folder 2. Box 3, Folder 3. Box 3, Folder 4. Box 3, Folder 5. Box 3, Folder 6. Box 3, Folder 7. Box 3, Folder 8. Box 3, Folder 9. Box 3, Folder Box 4, Folder 1. Box 4, Folder 2. Box 4, Folder 3. Box 4, Folder 4. Box 4, Folder 5. Box 4, Folder 6. Box 4, Folder 7. Box 4, Folder 8. Box 4, Folder 9. Box 4, Folder Box From Monnaie de Paris, designed by Raphael R. From Front side features Maria Callas inside Teatro alla Scala.
Shows image of Maria Callas with her name. Series 2: Programs Scope and Contents This series consists of opera and concert programs. The majority of the programs are from Maria Callas performances. However there is an additional small amount of programs from Maria Callas tributes and memorials. Box 5, Folder 1. Box 5, Folder 2.
Box 5, Folder 3. Box 5, Folder 4. Box 5, Folder 5. Box 5, Folder 6. Box 5, Folder 7. Box 5, Folder 8. Box 5, Folder 9. Box 5, Folder Box 78, Folder 1. Box 6, Folder 1. Box 6, Folder 2. Box 6, Folder 3. Box 6, Folder 4. Series 3: Periodicals Scope and Contents This series is composed of periodicals that feature Maria Callas in articles, photographs and covers.. Box 6, Folder 5. Box 6, Folder 6. Box 6, Folder 7. Box 6, Folder 8. Box 6, Folder 9. Box 6, Folder Box 7, Folder 1.
Box 7, Folder 2. Box 7, Folder 3. Box 7, Folder 4. Box 15, Folder Box 79, Folder 1. Box 7, Folder 5. Box 7, Folder 6. Box 7, Folder 7. Box 7, Folder 8. Box 7, Folder 9. Box 7, Folder Box 8, Folder 1. Box 8, Folder 2. Box 8, Folder 3. Box 8, Folder 4. Box 8, Folder 5. Box 8, Folder 6. Box 8, Folder 7. Box 8, Folder 8. Box 9, Folder 1. Box 9, Folder 2.
Box 9, Folder 3. Box 9, Folder 4. Box 10, Folder 1. Box 10, Folder 2. Box 10, Folder 3. Box 10, Folder 4. Box 11, Folder 1. Box 11, Folder 2. Box 11, Folder 3. Box 11, Folder 4. Box 11, Folder 5. Box 11, Folder 6. Box 11, Folder 7. Box 11, Folder 8. Box 11, Folder 9. Box 11, Folder Box 12, Folder 1. Box 12, Folder 2. Box 12, Folder 3. Box 12, Folder 4. Box 12, Folder 5. Box 12, Folder 6.
Box 13, Folder 1. Box 13, Folder 2. Box 13, Folder 3. Box 13, Folder 4. Box 13, Folder 5. Box 13, Folder 6. Box 13, Folder 7. Box 13, Folder 8. Box 13, Folder 9. Box 13, Folder Series 4: Newspaper clippings Scope and Contents This series consists of newspaper clippings about Maria Callas. The clippings are arranged chronologically and are in English, Italian, French, and German.
Box 76, Folder 1. Time, April 21, Life, October 31, New York Post, October 30, New York Times, October 30, The New York Times, circa Circa Dallas Times Herald, November 3, Lubbock Morning Avalanche, November 7, Two Celebrated Singers Try Again. Noir et Blanc.
December 12, Billboard Magazine, circa Brilliant Audience Turns Out for Callas. Circa and other headlines. San Francisco Sunday Chronicle, August 9, San Francisco Chronicle, September 6, San Francisco Chronicle, September 7, San Francisco Chronicle, September 9, San Francisco Examiner, September 11, Gossip in Gotham.
San Francisco Chronicle, September 26, San Francisco Chronicle, September 29, San Francisco Chronicle, November 15, San Francisco Chronicle, circa Box 76, Folder 2. Music and Musicians, Oggi Illustrato, January 7, SR, June 2, All this and Callas too. The Observer Weekend Review, January 26, The New York Times, May 23, October 15, Callas-Tebaldi Duel Resumes. San Francisco Chronicle, December 6, La Callas a Paris: La puissance et…surtout la gloire. San Francisco Chronicle, March Callas Attracts an Early Crowd.
The New York Times, March 20, New York Daily News, March 20, Callas Explosive as Tosca. New York Post, March 21, Le Figaro Litteraire, May June 2, Back Into the History Books. The New York Times, December 19, Palo Alto Times, April 6, A California Trip for Maria Callas. San Francisco Chronicle, August 2, Callas: The Lady or the Tiger.
San Francisco Chronicle, August 21, Box 76, Folder 3. Observer-Review, February 8, New York Times Magazine, October 25, Callas: Prima Donna by Expectation. Philadelphia Enquirer, December 17, Philadelphia Inquirer, February 7, Why Callas Left Curtis. Philadelphia Inquirer, February 19, Callas Does Some Talking in N. Los Angeles Times, February 21, Record American, February 5, New York Times, February 5, Fiery Maria Callas is a pianissimo professor.
Life, November 26, Callas Revisited — Exquisite As Ever. The New York Times, March 12, Maria Callas as a Pedagog: A Diary. Los Angeles Times, April 30, Callas upstages Verdi. Boston Sunday Globe, October 6, New York Daily News, circa November 27, Lions, Divas and Intellectuals. Los Angeles Times, September 27, The Callas style outshines voice. The New York Times, February 8, Comeback Here.
Philadelphia Inquirer, February 10, Philadelphia Inquirer, February 12, He Expected a Lion and Met a Lamb. Philadelphia Bulletin, February 12, Maria Callas Has Become a Dove. The Evening Bulletin, February 12, Callas Triumphant in American Debut. Philadelphia Daily News, February 12, The return of a legend — Maria Callas. Christian Science Monitor, February 14, The Florida Times-Union, February 14, Waiting for La Callas to Descend.
Washington Post, February 25, San Francisco Chronicle, February 26, The New York Times, March 6, Carnegie Swept by Emotional Torrent. Oregonian, April 26, San Francisco Chronicle, May 11, Box 76, Folder 4. Christian Science Monitor, Maria Callas is dead; fiery soprano was Philadelphia Inquirer, September 17, San Francisco Chronicle, September 17, New York Times, September 17, Washington Post, September 17, Daily News, September 17, Callas did what she had to do.
New York Post, September 17, Maria Callas — the image was a press creation. Courier-Post, September 17, The voice that soared all round the Western world. The Guardian, September 17, Callas the Woman. The Sunday Times, September 18, Callas legacy survives on print and vinyl. Gay News, January People: Memories of La Divina. The Drummer, September October 3, And now, a spate of recordings by the magnetic Maria Callas.
Philadelphia Inquirer, October 29, Box 76, Folder 5. New Haven Register, June 15, Callas sings again in a night of opera. Detroit Free Press, August 20, The Sunday Telegraph, August 31, The tragic lives of stars intrigue Franco Zeffirelli. Detroit Free Press, April 11, Christopher Street, circa February Detroit Free Press, April 20, Detroit Free Press, September 4, Gay News, December , Tribute: Singing the praises of fiery Maria Callas.
Detroit Free Press, December 9, Callas salute: An international operatic gala. Chicago Tribune, December 11, The fitting memorial for donna Maria Callas. Courier-Post, December 18, A magnificent obsession continues. The Dallas Morning News, September 13, Opera still feels the imprint of Maria Callas. Detroit Free Press, September 16, Classics: Magic of Callas comes through on CD. Detroit Free Press, March 7, Callas: Prima Donna in Excelsis. The Hellenic Times of Philadelphia, August Box 77, Folder 1.
New Callas Society. New York: Pantheon Books. Klein, N. The Shock Doctrine. The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Mazzoli, E. Milano: Biblion. Munger, F. Laboring Below the Line.
New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Noto, A. Messina Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino. Palumbo, B. Debt, Hegemony and Heterochrony in a Sicilian City. History and Anthropology, 27, 93— Powers, M. Squires Eds. Race, Class and Hurricane Katrina pp.
New York: Routledge. Saitta, P. Getting by or Getting Rich? The Hague: Eleven Publishers. Sawislak, K. Smoldering City. Chicagoans and the Great Fire. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Killing with Kindness. Sibley, D. Geographies of Exclusion. Society and Difference in the West.
London and New York: Routledge. Trigilia, C. Sviluppo senza autonomia. Effetti perversi delle politiche del mezzogiorno. Bologna: Il Mulino. Wisner, B. At Risk. The former term indicates an event whose consequences can be reabsorbed over a short lapse of time; the latter, instead, points to a sudden crisis the effects of which cannot be reversed. These annotations aptly introduce some of the issues that the Messina earthquake saw at work in the aftermath of the event and over the following decades.
One of key questions of this study consists in establish- ing whether that occurrence has been a disaster or a catastrophe, and whether a rebirth followed or not. This chapter introduces the reader to a disaster that took place in the Sicilian town of Messina in , and it provides a selection of key themes derived from the current sociological and anthropological debate on undesired events. SAITTA In particular, we see disasters as elements that can revitalize old frac- tures and lines of separation that are at the very basis of the processes of national formation.
Calamities expose and make tangible different posi- tions and perceptions related to time, space, and economy. Thus, from our professional perspective, beyond being tragic phenomena, disasters are cultural events disguised as politics. That is, a time of emergency that wipes out institutional checks and balances, or any other similar super- structure, and makes visible latent forces and different ways to cope with the unexpected and undesired. But disasters are also a way to produce new orders and new understand- ings of the situation.
Disasters, and post-disaster phases in particular, are modes to produce novel forms of stability and configuration of social rela- tions that reflect the public culture of a given time. The concept of public, however, implies also the notion of plurality: the same plurality at the very basis of societies segmented by class, power, education, and opportunities. In accordance with this premise, we believe that the seismic event that destroyed the Sicilian city at the very beginning of the past century marked a divide for the city, which, more than a century later, appears still sus- pended between feelings of nostalgia and a sense of loss.
Countless local intellectuals, websites, and Facebook pages still celebrate the city that dis- appeared at the dawn of a tragic morning more than a century earlier. Certainly, some corrections should be added to this definition, as the lost time to which local forms of nostalgia refer to is not unknown.
Moreover, the sense of decay mentioned by Herzfeld has, in this case, very specific objects. That is, the ideas of beauty, wealth, com- mercial power, and an entrepreneurial spirit. Perceptions concerning space, materiality, and moral virtues of the inhabitants are, therefore, at the center of this discourse. The study, which has never been published on a scientific journal, suggests that prior, pisait gmail.
Several local newspapers and magazines reported the news, and they suggested that such alterations might have caused changes in attitude and behavior of the local population. In Sicily, babbe were considered a handful of cities, including Messina and Syracuse, that were said not be home to mafia families. But leaving temporarily aside this important aspect, which hides a clear ambivalence toward organized crime, it is significant that Messinesi depict themselves, and are depicted from outside, as stupid.
Yet, an associated and popular term used to define the psychology of the city is buddace, a word which refers to a thin fish with a large mouth, the sea bass. Loudmouth or blowhard, thus, are pos- sible translations for this expression, which indicates a collective personal- ity trait characterized by the tendency to bragging and boasting—or saying without doing. To accompany this sense of collective ineptness, there are common complaints about the role that the nearby city of Catania plays in diminish- ing the importance of Messina at both an economic and institutional level.
More than just a mere competitor, Catania is commonly perceived as that evil entity that diminishes the institutional and economic importance of Messina. Without taking into account that Catania is home to many important local eco- nomic initiatives, and that it hosts multinational brands such as Ikea, and a few international companies operating in the electronics sector within the so-called Etna Valley.
Even thieves, robbers, and criminals active in the city of Messina are said to have come from Catania. This way of self- describing the situation of Messina in relation to neg- ative collective traits and to its most important economic competitor is something that emerges after the earthquake. Until that moment, in pisait gmail.
At the turn of the century, in the s, the Port of Messina, for example, had been the first of the island and the sixth of the nation. Due to structural changes in the national and international logistics sys- tem, and the overall economy of the island, and thanks to the emergence of new southern ports, at the time of the earthquake, Messina was still the third port of the island and the tenth of the country. Catania was, so to say, still off the radar.
Since then, as is shown in Chaps. The sense of referring to these elements that shape both the cultural intimacy of this place and its economic situation lies in the idea that there are undesired events—namely catastrophes—which last over the decades and the centuries, and determine the modes of representation of places. Oliver-Smith , p. While this is true and it also entails the idea that undesired events are social constructions whose mean- ing and effects depend, among other things, on the position of the indi- vidual and collective actors in the social ladder, such events are also cultural elements.
So, Hochschild argues, the memory of Southern environmental glory fell. In fact, the seismic event was not chosen, and most of the people could not draw any advantage from it— although some certainly did. However, one should keep in mind that these selected memories do not attain only to the public sphere.
Disasters, and above all disasters that turn out to be catastrophes, mark forever the end of worlds, and so shape individual and collective sentiments. They are events through which affects are produced and, perhaps, also governed. In other words, effects determine affects—that is, modes of perceiving reality do not emerge as emotions, nor as passions but as interior feelings that can- not easily be rationalized and expressed into words, and that produce membership or self-exclusion, sense of loss, or satisfaction.
Affects, more- over, are shared and become, thus, public and implicitly political. That is, a narra- tion and a way of experiencing reality that is repeated and transmitted from generation to generation. The narration of a time that has gone forever. In the aftermath of the disaster, when the city was still under the debris, influent national and international witnesses, such as journalists, medical doctors, and army officers who reached Messina from the north of Italy or from abroad, to describe the situation or to help, wrote a number of reports that systemi- cally denigrated the city.
Noto , pp. In general, these witnesses complained that the survivors did not support the rescue operations, and that they appeared pisait gmail. And, in general, the numbers of articles that expressed similar opinions were countless. Petty traders, street vendors, little vandalisms, and double parking are some of those elements and presences, common to most large- and medium-sized cities in the world, that, for most commen- tators, mark the impossibility of pursuing civility in the city. And this is only one of the many available examples of local public debate that show the persis- tence of such longing for a certain idea of missed modernity.
Clearly, civility is not a theme specific to Messina, and it is actually one of the key issues of modernity. Nevertheless, ways of applying these ideologies have dif- fered from country to country, and the legacy of such modes of application took local forms. Their specific and local meanings, in other words, are subjected to local history. There is, therefore, a curious resonance between this new way of being reimagined and narrated in the public space in the aftermath of the big earthquake, and the language of the contemporary upper class and its intellectuals.
Of course, in the case of Italy, the language of civility is not specific to Messina. And even in the northern cities, this theme is still very common, as a search of the local editions of newspapers would show see, e. Nevertheless, in places like Milan, Turin, and the many other centers that after the Second World War were home to flows of workers from the Southern regions of the country and from abroad, the issue of civility acquires different meanings.
Here, the local social question mirrors the Southern Question. Since the Unity, in fact, the dominant discourse opposes the hardworking northerners and the idle southerners Petraccone Moreover, such representations do not belong only to a tiny but influential political elite that aims at pursuing a particular project. On the contrary, they are rooted in the internal culture of Italy and slow to die.
If visible expressions of internal racism directed against the southerners, pisait gmail. SAITTA now turned into institutional xenophobia, were part of the political offer of leading formations such as the Northern League Barcella , there has always been an everyday internal and external racism practiced by common people Naletto Thus, given the different contexts, and in spite of the superficial resem- blances, the meaning of civility discourses in different parts of the country is rather nuanced.
In the case of Messina, though, the local element posed at the basis of the current declinations of this theme is, probably, the catastrophe. The socially constructed nature of calamities lies, besides their triggering causes, often imputable to technical choices and other human reasons, on the cul- tural dynamics that they are able to set in motion. So that certain collective tragedies are, among other things, cultural occurrences that determine complex public and political effects.
Disasters, for example, make apparent what is latent. As in the case mentioned earlier, the positivistic and inti- mately racist cultural climate and discourses that covered Italy, and seemed not to be applicable to urban centers like Messina, all of a sudden become the only way through which a place gets to be known and told in the public sphere—up to the point that these recently acquired labels shaped the iden- tity of a place and contributed to create new social classes and hierarchies.
In this respect, Van Dijk , p. Davis and French , p. Then, quite predictably, media linked victims and survivors to criminal activities. In third place, victims and survivors were portrayed as irresponsible. The substance of this pisait gmail. If, as Caminiti and Centorrino have shown, the stereotypes by means of which the survivors of the earthquake were portrayed were consistent with the Italian ideology of the time, the way the media operated was quite modern.
This is certainly true, among other things, even from a technical point of view, as the Messina earthquake is one of the first examples of organization of integrated and international- ized media networks able to cover an event of this sort Castronovo and Tranfaglia —an occurrence that had clear implications for the way professionals active in the field interpreted reality and exposed themselves to unwitting biases Centorrino , p.
Public memory—that is, the circulation of recollections that entail what is remembered by the communities and how it is framed Houdek and Phillips —shows these processes. For example, the Chicago Great Fire of took place within the framework of an ascending economy, and it can be seen through the lens of the myth of creative destruction. For the collective memory, from the Great Fire, the city resurrected stronger than before Sawislak The same is true for San Francisco less than a decade after the earthquake.
The common element between these two experiences is that, prior to the different disasters that hit them, both cities were in an expan- sion phase. On the contrary, in Messina presented a strong but pisait gmail. As a matter of fact, since the s, the agricultural sector, in particular wine and citrus fruit, had dipped consistently.
The same was true for the textile industry. The silk business, in particular, was in crisis due to epidemics that had devas- tated the local silkworm rearing sector, and to the increasing competition of the Asian markets. Moreover, if for long time the port of Messina had been a hub for the goods coming from Palermo and Catania, at the begin- ning of the twentieth century new ports had emerged in the island, which were much closer to the regional sites of production of exportable goods. The building of new railway lines and other infrastructures benefited other provinces but not Messina, which saw its logistic relevance decreasing con- siderably.
Yet, if for centuries Messina had been a free port, since the early s that privilege had been abolished. Finally, at the turn of the century, citrus fruits and derived products were almost the only goods that left the port of the city—something that suggested the limitedness of the local economy and its upcoming collapse Battaglia ; Chiara Yet, if it would not be correct to state that the reconstruction began in —that is, sixteen years after the earthquake—it is quite accurate to maintain that it had an acceleration starting from that year.
The beginning of the Great War, the embezzlement or the diversion of the funds destined for the restoration, the inefficiency of the bureaucratic machine, and the particular political role of the devastated city had halted the reconstruction of the Sicilian center for almost two decades. And while the main reason for the decadence of the city had clearly been the earthquake, other endog- enous and exogenous factors lay behind this process.
These latter were represented by the partial disappearance of the core component of the local bourgeoisie, the nepotism of the local and national cliques, and the speculative processes fed by the politicians, which left those who lacked of economic and social capital without any type of guarantee De Pasquale Due to prevalence of these local, endogenous factors, it is possible to claim that the earthquake had only accelerated the deterioration of the city, and that the decay was, so to say, around the corner anyway.
However, as a consequence of these different combinations of factors at work, at a cultural level, the Chicago Fire and the San Francisco earth- quake generated internal narrations about rebirth, power, and determina- tion; the Messina earthquake, instead, still evokes the ideas of end, misery, and nostalgia. In the case of Messina, it is possible to claim that the quality of interventions in the acute phase was generally very bad and that it has been even worse in the post-disaster phase.
And that in at least one case, the Italian rescuers had forgotten tents and blankets for the survivors. Or, that the name of the coordinator of the operations, General Francesco Mazza, has changed forever the Italian language by becoming synonymous with stu- pid. And even that the Italian troops appeared more concerned with rescu- ing bank vaults than people Boatti Not only in the obvious sense that the political proximity between local and national governments can help mobilize resources for reconstruction, as the recent case of the earthquake in Emilia Romagna has shown in a time during which the regional and central governments were both Democratic , nor in the sense that disasters that take place in economically strategic locations are more likely to see effective responses Nimis ; Pitzalis The case of Messina, rather, shows how interventions in calamitous scenarios can represent a way to establish political orders in places that are not aligned with the ruling government in a given moment.
On the eve of the earthquake, the economic choices of the Giolitti govern- ment had harmed Messina. Subsequently, the representatives of the city and the province in the national parliament had joined the opposition. Three months after the earthquake, in March , there would have been the national elections. Over the course of the time that preceded the pisait gmail.
Extraordinary funds were allocated by way of dero- gation from the preexisting regulations; tax exemptions for the areas hit by the quake were introduced; the national economic development agency, Cassa depositi e prestiti, was allowed to grant depreciable loans, repayable in fifty years, to the owners of damaged houses.
These acts were part, in other words, of a strategy aimed at taking control of the city again and promoting the image of the government Noto , p. The Unione, whose responsibilities grew over the course of time, was in charge of gathering all the owners of damaged houses and coordinating the restoration, or reconstruction, of the buildings to be erected on the lots under control of the agency itself.
In practice, this measure denied the right to housing to those who did not own a house before the tragedy, or not possessed the means required to repay their loans. Finally, the loans were transferrable, and this paved the way to big speculations—so jeopardizing both the lower and the middle classes Noto , pp.
However, such capitalist use of the earthquake was not limited to the local level. Not by chance, very soon, the Unione would have become a national organ responsible for the assignment of funds in case of disaster, and Giolitti himself would have been elected again in the same district in the elections scheduled for In this respect, not even the scandals could halt the prime minister.
For example, a scandal that exploded in showed that the Prefetto of Messina—that is, the repre- sentative of the State in each administrative province—and the Minister of Public Works, had engaged in a conflict over the selection of the compa- nies which would have been awarded public procurement contracts for carrying out certain public works.
The Prefetto appeared to support the local enterprises, and the Minister the northern cooperatives. The inquiry demonstrated that at the end of the day, the two authorities had found a way to settle the dispute and award the contracts to both parties Noto , p. In the years that followed the earthquake, Messina presented many such opportunities; moreover, the liberal ideological framework as well as the legal and admin- istrative tools utilized to trigger the exploitative process, resembled those identified by this author in her analysis.
But if Klein traces the origin of a certain model of governance in events and policies which made their first appearance in the s, our hypothesis is that the beginning of disaster capitalism has older roots. Dependency, yet, is a central concept that implies in our case both the intertwinement of the interests held by the elites politicians, profession- als, and entrepreneurs of local and national level and the asymmetry between actors. In our case, the term dependency points both at the forced connection that links the semi-periphery to the political center the national State and at the interpersonal reliance by the lower classes on the upper ones, by means of brokers and cliques Chubb A semi-peripheral depen- dency is the condition experienced by Messina after the seismic waves had shattered the city, together with its infrastructure, investors, and wealth.
If it is not credible that this economic and social capital was entirely gone and that the city had no specific weight after the event, certainly its impor- tance was at this point considerably downsized. These events and, above all, the management processes that follow, do not produce only public memories or identities—that is, real but at the same time abstract notions concerning the collective Self of a place.
Rather, they generate social relations and practices—like, among others, Barrios has shown in a portion of his study devoted to the relation between Hurricane Mitch and the rise of the mara, the gangs, in Honduras. In our example, Messina, like most of the South of Italy, is famous for being home to nepotistic and clientelistic relations that are distinguished from but are also connected to that quintessential local mode of regulation which is called mafia Walston This is very evident in the Messina case.
Certainly, the city was considered babba, non-mafiosi, as we said earlier, but only on the surface. Indeed, over the years, a number of inves- tigations showed how, for decades, Messina has been firmly part of the most important criminal networks that operated on the island and else- where Comitato messinese per la pace e il disarmo ; La Rosa And those studies have also shown how the mafia active in the city crossed pisait gmail. The complex and differentiated links between clientelism, political power, private entrepreneurship, and the mafia developed in the intercon- nection between local, national, and international networks.
Moreover, as we have already mentioned, they have often been simplified in the positiv- istic and stereotyped discourse on the southern character idle, indifferent, and violent , in which the mafia as well as brigandage was seen as a natu- ral complement of this feral nature Dickie ; Riall This is not to say that before the earthquake, these tendencies were not present in city life.
On the con- trary, well before the earthquake, a local witness of the time, the engineer Riccardo Hopkins, was usually very vehement against the cliques that ruled the city Hopkins Likewise, historians are keen to concede that the influence of this composite group of politicians and businessmen, not foreign to violence and intimidations, was indeed quite strong Caffo However, it is indeed noticeable that in the moment in which the eyes of the central authorities were directed toward the city as never before in the brief history of the unitary State, this very same State did not try to eradicate those practices that had qualified a social space as immoral and dysfunctional.
It was indeed a complex and scalar architecture of power whose levels of premeditation, perhaps, should not be exaggerated. As a matter of fact, the production of a vast underclass presented some risks, given the prox- imity of the adoption of universal suffrage in and the national elec- tions that took place the following year—especially in the presence of a growing socialist movement and, above all, of a Catholic party, which, in pisait gmail. There was, hence, a sort of foolishness in this way of operating that does not bode for any rationalist interpretation, but reflects the substantial negli- gence of the elites of power, together with their intimate idea that only business, and the upper classes, mattered.
However, whether initially this process of creation of a mass of shanty-dwellers, which in consisted of 70, people Noto , p. Either impersonal organizations that operate in the general interest, or structures that can be worked out, bureaucracies can add to the deadly effects of a disaster and reflect active differences in access to services, licenses, and subsidies.
On the traces of Douglas , in her study of a vast landslide that hit a number of Sicilian villages in , Falconieri , p. Often, this operation reflects values and schemes that might not be shared by the actors—that is, the authorities and the citizens. It can revitalize old fractures and lines of separation that are at the very basis of the processes of national formation Holmes ; Herzfeld : public affects and sentiments, in other words, which are directed against the State and the national rhetoric.
The latter is an occurrence that emerges with much clarity in the abovementioned ethnographic works of Falconieri and Hochschild A feeling of estrangement which is also due to the fact that bureaucracies can redraw the geography of place and affects, as, among many others, the studies of Barrios on the pisait gmail. Moreover, like the case of Messina in suggests, bureaucracies can work in the general interest or in the interest of particular groups of power.
Especially under regimes of exception and emergency, the uncommon capa- bility of certain cliques and individuals to have access to public offices is often among the reasons behind the rise of new subjects entrepreneurs, firms, speculators, etc. Processes of dispossession, though, do not take place with- out open or subtle forms of opposition and adaptation. Benadusi , for instance, has shown how a poor Sri Lankan community that had been excluded by the international donations, in the aftermath of the tsu- nami, put into being a collective social drama aimed at obtaining part of the funds.
Londero has described how a small community in Friuli, hit in by one of the most terrible earthquakes of contemporary Italy, had gathered in a tent camp and, from there, had imposed with its struggles the best reconstruction model even witnessed in Italy. A similar story is narrated by Pitzalis , whose ethnographic study focuses on a leftist community in Emilia Romagna that had eschewed the governmental camps of the Civil Protection Department in order to create an autonomous space, from which they conducted a struggle against the policies of the central and regional governments.
But while these are examples of open and collective opposition to reconstruction policies, practices of resistance and adjustments are often hidden and individualistic. This latter is the case with the seventy-seven people that, in the Sicilian villages of Scaletta and Itala studied by Falconieri , p.
None of these people, according to the intimate account of Falconieri, had taken advantage of the measures issued by the authorities or had acted against the spirit of the law, in spite of their personal disapproval of the decisions imposed by the authorities. All of them, rather, had used their old houses only for a few hours every day, either for storage or as a place within which to exercise some kind of spiri- tual reconnection with their lost lives.
Unlike the older generation of peasants and herd- ers that was tremendously affected by the earthquake, this new cohort of better-educated farmers, able to read and interpret the hundreds of by-laws and calls for support grants issued by a number of agencies in the aftermath of the calamity, were capable of transforming this profound event into an opportunity and so increasing considerably their profits.
Something, incidentally, that allows us to see in a critical perspective the mainstream discourse on resilience—a concept that, often, neglects the importance of asymmetries within studied contexts. As noted by Hull , p. An eth- nography of the material production of public administration, then, is a way to see the world through the lens of the State.
An analysis of the bureaucracy, therefore, is in the case of modern calamities a necessary way to explore the complex interplay between the strategies of the State and the responsive tactics of the common people to oppose regulation. The comparison among bureaucratic styles, finally, is the tool to understand current trends and images of desirable modernity with regard to urbanism, public space, political economy, and city man- agement Gotham and Greenberg After all, as argued by Powers , p.
Values and commitments, we add, which are shared by segments of the economic, political, and intellectual elites in a given time, and that, at the end of a struggle of ideas and interests, get to distinguish different epochs or places, producing dif- ferent outputs in terms of social inclusion and regeneration.
Nevertheless, in spite of different results, and regardless of their degree of inclusion, these styles and values share the tendency to identify enemies and generate discourses aimed at producing deviants and scapegoats. From this observation, finally, derives the cynical note that disasters are the perfect ethnomethodological situation.
In this situation, bewilderment, uncertainty, internal conflict, psycho-isolation, and acute and nameless anxiety are the feelings that prevail. Within this context, then, the only question that matters to people is how to re-create a world. The most essential and pre- political of the situations one can imagine. Zampieri is the only author who has underlined the importance of this distinctive category for the local culture.
A similar point, on how economic injustice in the USA has been exacerbated through housing policy, is made by Rothstein Probably, such origins might be dated back to the eighteenth century. Albeit these two reconstruction processes were managed incomparably better than the seismic crisis of , one will find the seeds of those tendencies whose origins are traced by Klein back to the capitalist restructuring processes of the early s.
The elements of institutional violence the use of the army, in particular ; the implementation of states of exception; the raise of new individuals and groups, or the use of disasters as a way to impose radical changes in the State organization and the law, can be found also in those experiences. Certainly, this hypothesis should be deepened. Percorsi leghisti. Meridiana, 91, 95— Barrios, R. Governing Affect.
Neoliberalism and Disaster Reconstruction. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Battaglia, R. Messina tra rilancio e decadenza. Soveria Mannelli: Rubbetino. Benadusi, M. The Politics of Catastrophe. Attina Ed. Contrasting Approaches to Disasters and Emergencies pp. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Boatti, G. La terra trema. Milano: Mondadori. Breglia, A. Le faglie della terra. Rome: DeriveApprodi. Caffo, A.
Politica e Massoneria a Messina. Bolignani Ed. Politico e massone pp. Messina: Istituto Novecento. Caminiti, L. Efficientismo e pregiudizi negli aiuti alle popolazioni terremotate. Carnelli, F. La festa di San Giovanni a Paganica. Riti e Santi fra le macerie del post-sisma aquilano. Saitta Ed. Vita quotidiana, resistenza e gestione del disastro pp. Firenze: Editpress. Castronovo, V. Bari: Laterza. Centorrino, M. Il terremoto e le dinamiche della rappresentazione gior- nalististica.
Cicala, A. Blocchi fulciani e clerico-moderati. Lotte politiche a Messina dopo il terremoto del Comitato per la pace e il disarmo Ed. Conti, F. La massoneria italiana da Giolitti a Mussolini. Rome: Viella. Crozier, M. The Bureaucratic Phenomenon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Actors and Systems. The Politics of Collective Action. Davis, M. Southern Communication Journal, 73 3 , — De Martino, E. La fine del mondo. Torino: Einaudi. Di Treviri, E. Sul fronte del sisma.
History Workshop Journal, 33 1 , 1— Douglas, M. How Institutions Think. Falconieri, I. Disastri, politiche pubbliche e cambiamento sociale in un comune siciliano. Rome: Cisu. Fedele, S. Le logge massoniche di Messina alla vigilia del terremoto. Campione Ed. Messina e dintorni pp. Palermo: Silvana Editoriale. Fofi, G. Foot, J. Milan since the Miracle. City, Culture and Identity. Oxford and New York: Berg.
Garfinkel, H. Studies in Ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity. Gibson, M. Westport, CT: Praeger. Gotham, K. New York: Oxford University Press. Herzfeld, M. Cultural Intimacy. Hochschild, A. Strangers in Their Own Land. Anger and Mourning on the American Right.
New York: The New Press. The Age of Reform. New York: Vintage Books. Holmes, D. Integral Europe. Fast-Capitalism, Multiculturalism, Neofascism. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Hopkins, R. La vera piaga di Messina. Messina: Tipografia del Faro. Houdek, M. Public Memory. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. Hull, M. Government of Paper.
The Materiality of Bureaucracy in Urban Pakistan. Huysseune, M. Modernity and Secession. New York: Berghahn. Italiano, F. Degassamento di radon e modifica del DNA della popolazi- one siciliana: possibili relazioni con il terremoto del Ingv Conference Materials.
La Rosa, M. Il fenomeno Mafioso. Il caso Messina. Londero, I. Pa sopravivence. Forme di autogestione nel Friuli terremotato. Udine: Forum. Moe, N. The View from Vesuvius. Italian Culture and the Southern Question. Montaldi, D.
Milano, Corea. Inchiesta sugli immigrati. Naletto, G. Rapporto sul razzismo in Italia. Rome: Manifestolibri. Nimis, G. Terre mobili. Rome: Donzelli. Oliver-Smith, A. Theorizing Disasters: Nature, Power, and Culture. Oliver-Smith Eds. The Anthropology of Disaster pp. Pereira, A. The Journal of Economic History, 69 2 , — Petraccone, C. Pitzalis, S. Politiche del disastro. Poteri e contropoteri nel terremoto italiano. Verona: Ombre Corte. Placanica, A.
Il filosofo e la catastrofe. Un terremoto del Settecento. Pruiti, R. Viaggio nelle baraccopoli di Messina a un secolo dal terremoto. Rabinow, P. French Modern. Norms and Forms of Social Environment. Riall, L. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Rock, P. Deviant Behavior. London: Routledge. Rothstein, R. The Color of Law. New York and London: Liveright Publishing.
Roy, A. Alsayyad Eds. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Urban Informality. Saugeres, L. Sociologia Ruralis, 42 2 , — Schneider, J. Orientalism in One Country. New York: Berg. Scott, J. Seeing Like a State. Yale: Yale University Press. Tsing, A. The Mushroom at the End of the World. On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins. Van Dijk, T.
Racism and the Press. Critical Studies in Racism and Migration. Walston, J. Zampieri, P. Esplorazioni urbane. Urban art, patrimoni culturali e beni comuni. Noto In the collective memory of the residents, the earthquake was an irre- versible event, perhaps a permanent and irremediable rift. Whether or not this corresponds to reality or to the imagination is unimportant.
What really matters is that this constant reiteration, practice, and reproduction generate real effects. As is seen in more depth in Chap. They fill the space physically, but more especially, symbolically, as the perpetual existence of these buildings is the self-evident expression of the impossibility of ever returning to normal, of getting over the sense of loss. It is a mate- rial temporality in which before and after are two linear moments, both consecutive and continuous so that the second necessarily contains the first , and that can be translated into an abstract, ahistorical, and recurring temporality: thus, before and after become monolithic blocks which exclude each other but are complementary, like two sides of the same coin.
In the time before the earthquake, the city is seen as mythical, with its mer- chants and free port, as a city that played an important role in Mediterranean maritime trade see Chap. However, Messina is not simply in Italy, it is also in the South.
How can this conflict be resolved? How can these contradictions be demonized? The most reassuring and placatory solution is the rather naive reality of finger pointing. Following the fateful event, the seeds of the stereotypes of this area as characterized by resignation, dependence, welfarism, and the inability to take action were permanently established, committing it to a future of backwardness and underdevelopment in the national narrative.
Dickie , pp. Caminiti , p. Gribaudi , pp. It also underlines all the ambiguities inherent in this con- pisait gmail. The narrative is transformed. However, although Messina and its history are inscribed within the ideological framework of the Southern Question, this approach is limited, and it is necessary to look beyond the concept of South and North and to consider contemporary Messina as one of the many fragments of modernity.
As is seen in more detail in Chap. Marginal groups that aspire to social mobility by means of work or housing are prepared to make even greater efforts, even in an opportunistic direction, through the logic of rational calculation showing that, far from representing modernity, they are closer to a utilitarian para- digm of action. In his essay, Faeta , p. This interesting image might be a useful way to interpret the Messina case. In fact, the narratives regard- ing the earthquake and post-earthquake city belong to the same ahistori- cal past used to observe the South and the Southern Question.
This model is both entrepreneurial and political in other words, consensus management which, far from expressing forms of backward- ness, shows a territorially specific way of organizing contemporary capital- ism within the city itself. Schneider a, p. In truth, this process was already underway in Italy.
During the s, several scholars had highlighted the fact that the history of the South with its North-development and South-underdevelopment dichotomy had become part of the Southern Question itself. They also showed how its history was an ideological trap, as it did not allow for the inclusion of the Southern regions in the analysis of national and global capitalist dynamics Mottura and Pugliese ; Bagnasco ; Bagnasco et al. More or less at the same time, other studies were beginning to demon- strate how diverse the South was in terms of cultural and social landscape construction Rossi-Doria ; Inea ; Sereni ; Bevilacqua These two events encouraged a recon- sideration of the Italian Mezzogiorno and the way it had been instrumen- talized Morris , p.
On the one hand, the view of the Mezzogiorno was broadened, and the history of the South separated from the Southern Question so that it could take its place in the wider history of European capitalism. There was a call to see the Southern territories not as an exception, but as just another fragment of modernity, in the context of the new urban and rural elites that emerged between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and there was a revolution in the capitalistic unifica- tion of the market and the consumer society Lupo It is noticeable how, even in the peripheral contexts of the world economy, such as pisait gmail.
As Dickie puts it , p. In order to answer these questions, we should reiterate that the Mezzogiorno does not represent an analytical category and is not a uniform physical and geographical space10; instead, we can see it as the expression of a symbolic and political geography that became more solid within the framework of the Italian Unification and the rather uncertain plan to cre- ate a modern unified, capitalistic state.
The solution to this problem required specific posi- tioning and some field choices that became ideological premises. The positioning was positivistic, showing the need for unilineal and progressive development as the only possible way forward. On the other, it was necessary to include these dichoto- mies in development discourse in an attempt to bring order between the two sides, which culminated in the idea that the Savoy North was the desirable model for the national state Gribaudi As Petrusewicz puts it a, pp.
In the end, the term becomes an umbrella category, uniting authors, analysts, and thinkers belonging to profoundly different eras, by the idea that a Southern Question does exist, but that they find very different, often contrasting, explanations and solutions for it, which sometimes descend into cultural or moralistic notions about the people of the South Giarrizzo ; Lupo In this respect, the intellectuals contributed to strengthening the repre- sentation of the Mezzogiorno as the Southern Question by underlining the differences between North and South , and legitimizing the school of thought.
If we look at the large number of essays, pamphlets, and investi- gations that were written from the time of the Italian Unification to the pisait gmail. Throughout this chap- ter, we have highlighted how the mechanisms responsible for creating the Southern Question in the Italian Mezzogiorno were the result of economic underdevelopment and cultural variables and differences.
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