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Related Stories. Newswire Powered by. Close the menu. Pope John Paul II stated in that:  "Since it is not a matter of faith, the Church has no specific competence to pronounce on these questions. She entrusts to scientists the task of continuing to investigate, so that satisfactory answers may be found to the questions connected with this Sheet.
In his address at the Turin Cathedral on Sunday 24 May the occasion of the th year of Secondo Pia's 28 May photograph , he said: "The Shroud is an image of God's love as well as of human sin The imprint left by the tortured body of the Crucified One, which attests to the tremendous human capacity for causing pain and death to one's fellow man, stands as an icon of the suffering of the innocent in every age.
On 30 March , as part of the Easter celebrations, there was an exposition of the shroud in the Cathedral of Turin. Pope Francis recorded a video message for the occasion, in which he described the image on the shroud as "this Icon of a man", and stated that "the Man of the Shroud invites us to contemplate Jesus of Nazareth. John Bosco on the bicentenary of his birth. The Oxford English Dictionary cites the first use of this word in "The investigation Secondo Pia 's photographs of the shroud allowed the scientific community to begin to study it.
A variety of scientific theories regarding the shroud have since been proposed, based on disciplines ranging from chemistry to biology and medical forensics to optical image analysis. The scientific approaches to the study of the Shroud fall into three groups: material analysis both chemical and historical , biology and medical forensics and image analysis. The first direct examination of the shroud by a scientific team was undertaken in — in order to advise on preservation of the shroud and determine specific testing methods.
This led to the appointment of an member Turin Commission to advise on the preservation of the relic and on specific testing. Five of the commission members were scientists, and preliminary studies of samples of the fabric were conducted in In physicist John P. Jackson, thermodynamicist Eric Jumper and photographer William Mottern used image analysis technologies developed in aerospace science for analyzing the images of the Shroud. In these three scientists and over thirty other experts in various fields formed the Shroud of Turin Research Project.
A second result of Tamburelli was the electronic removal from the image of the blood that apparently covers the face. In the s, a special eleven-member Turin Commission conducted several tests. Conventional and electron microscopic examination of the Shroud at that time revealed an absence of heterogeneous coloring material or pigment.
The only fibrils that had been made available for testing of the stains were those that remained affixed to custom-designed adhesive tape applied to thirty-two different sections of the image. Mark Anderson, who was working for McCrone, analyzed the Shroud samples. John Heller and Alan Adler examined the same samples and agreed with McCrone's result that the cloth contains iron oxide. However, they concluded, the exceptional purity of the chemical and comparisons with other ancient textiles showed that, while retting flax absorbs iron selectively, the iron itself was not the source of the image on the shroud.
After years of discussion, the Holy See permitted radiocarbon dating on portions of a swatch taken from a corner of the shroud. The dating does on the other hand match the first appearance of the shroud in church history. Dale, who postulated on artistic grounds that the shroud is an 11th-century icon made for use in worship services.
Some proponents for the authenticity of the shroud have attempted to discount the radiocarbon dating result by claiming that the sample may represent a medieval "invisible" repair fragment rather than the image-bearing cloth. In recent years, the radiocarbon dating data have been repeatedly statistically analysed, in attempts to draw some conclusions about the reliability of the C14 dating from studying the data rather than studying the shroud itself.
The studies have all concluded that the data lack homogeneity, which might be due to unidentified abnormalities in the fabric tested, or to differences in the pre-testing cleaning processes used by the different laboratories. In , shroud researcher Joe Nickell wrote that no examples of herringbone weave are known from the time of Jesus. The few samples of burial cloths that are known from the era are made using plain weave.
The shroud was composed of a simple two-way weave, unlike the complex herringbone twill of the Turin Shroud. Based on this discovery, the researchers concluded that the Turin Shroud did not originate from Jesus-era Jerusalem. There are several reddish stains on the shroud suggesting blood, but it is uncertain whether these stains were produced at the same time as the image, or afterwards. Skeptics cite forensic blood tests whose results dispute the authenticity of the Shroud, and point to the possibility that the blood could belong to a person who handled the shroud, and that the apparent blood flows on the shroud are unrealistically neat.
A study published in by Salvatore Lorusso of the University of Bologna and others subjected two photographs of the shroud to detailed modern digital image processing, one of them being a reproduction of the photographic negative taken by Giuseppe Enrie in They did not find any images of flowers or coins or anything else on either image.
In , Italian researchers Barcaccia et al. They examined the human and non-human DNA found when the shroud and its backing cloth were vacuumed in and Of the human mtDNA , sequences were found belonging to haplogroups that are typical of various ethnicities and geographic regions, including Europe, North and East Africa, the Middle East and India. A few non-plant and non-human sequences were also detected, including various birds and one ascribable to a marine worm common in the Northern Pacific Ocean, next to Canada.
According to the scientists, "such diversity does not exclude a Medieval origin in Europe but it would be also compatible with the historic path followed by the Turin Shroud during its presumed journey from the Near East. Furthermore, the results raise the possibility of an Indian manufacture of the linen cloth. A number of studies on the anatomical consistency of the image on the shroud and the nature of the wounds on it have been performed, following the initial study by Yves Delage in The analysis of a crucified Roman, discovered near Venice in , shows heel wounds that are consistent with those found on Jehohanan but which are not consistent with wounds depicted on the shroud.
Also, neither of the crucifixion victims known to archaeology shows evidence of wrist wounds. Joe Nickell in , and Gregory S. Paul in , separately state that the proportions of the image are not realistic. Paul stated that the face and proportions of the shroud image are impossible, that the figure cannot represent that of an actual person and that the posture was inconsistent.
They argued that the forehead on the shroud is too small; and that the arms are too long and of different lengths and that the distance from the eyebrows to the top of the head is non-representative. They concluded that the features can be explained if the shroud is a work of a Gothic artist.
In , an experimental Bloodstain Pattern Analysis BPA was performed to study the behaviour of blood flows from the wounds of a crucified person, and to compare this to the evidence on the Turin Shroud. The comparison between different tests demonstrated that the blood patterns on the forearms and on the back of the hand are not connected, and would have had to occur at different times, as a result of a very specific sequence of movements.
In addition, the rivulets on the front of the image are not consistent with the lines on the lumbar area, even supposing there might have been different episodes of bleeding at different times. These inconsistencies suggest that the Turin linen was an artistic or "didactic" representation, rather than an authentic burial shroud. Both art-historical digital image processing and analog techniques have been applied to the shroud images. In , scientists used NASA imaging equipment to analyse a photograph of the shroud image and decoded the shroud image into a 3-dimensional image.
If the object being photographed is lit from the front, and a non-reflective "fog" of some sort exists between the camera and the object, then less light will reach and reflect back from the portions of the object that are farther from the lens, thus creating a contrast which is dependent on distance. The image on the front of the Turin Shroud, 1. The image could be compared to oshiguma , the making of face-prints as an artform, in Japan.
Furthermore, Jesus' physical appearance corresponds to Byzantine iconography. The technique used for producing the image is, according to Walter McCrone, described in a book about medieval painting published in by Charles Lock Eastlake Methods and Materials of Painting of the Great Schools and Masters.
Eastlake describes in the chapter "Practice of Painting Generally During the XIVth Century" a special technique of painting on linen using tempera paint, which produces images with unusual transparent features—which McCrone compares to the image on the shroud. In , Luigi Garlaschelli, professor of organic chemistry at the University of Pavia , stated that he had made a full size reproduction of the Shroud of Turin using only medieval technologies.
Garlaschelli placed a linen sheet over a volunteer and then rubbed it with an acidic pigment. The shroud was then aged in an oven before being washed to remove the pigment. He then added blood stains, scorches and water stains to replicate the original. Garlaschelli's reproduction was shown in a National Geographic documentary.
Garlaschelli's technique included the bas-relief approach described below but only for the image of the face. The resultant image was visibly similar to the Turin Shroud, though lacking the uniformity and detail of the original. The art historian Nicholas Allen has proposed that the image on the shroud was formed by a photographic technique in the 13th century. To demonstrate this, he successfully produced photographic images similar to the shroud using only techniques and materials available at the time the shroud was supposedly made.
However, according to Mike Ware, a chemist and expert on the history of photography, Allen's proposal "encounters serious obstacles with regard to the technical history of the lens. Such claimants tend to draw upon the wisdom of hindsight to project a distorted historical perspective, wherein their cases rest upon a particular concatenation of procedures which is exceedingly improbable; and their 'proofs' amount only to demonstrating none too faithfully that it was not totally impossible.
Scientists Emily Craig and Randall Bresee have attempted to recreate the likenesses of the shroud through the dust-transfer technique, which could have been done by medieval arts. They first did a carbon-dust drawing of a Jesus-like face using collagen dust on a newsprint made from wood pulp which is similar to 13th- and 14th-century paper. They next placed the drawing on a table and covered it with a piece of linen.
They then pressed the linen against the newsprint by firmly rubbing with the flat side of a wooden spoon. By doing this they managed to create a reddish-brown image with a lifelike positive likeness of a person, a three-dimensional image and no sign of brush strokes. In , Joe Nickell noted that the Shroud image had a three-dimensional quality and thought its creation may have involved a sculpture of some type.
He advanced the hypothesis that a medieval rubbing technique was used to explain the image, and set out to demonstrate this. He noted that while wrapping a cloth around a sculpture with normal contours would result in a distorted image, Nickell believed that wrapping a cloth over a bas-relief might result in an image like the one seen on the shroud, as it would eliminate wraparound distortions.
For his demonstration, Nickell wrapped a wet cloth around a bas-relief sculpture and allowed it to dry. He then applied powdered pigment rather than wet paint to prevent it soaking into the threads. The pigment was applied with a dauber, similar to making a rubbing from a gravestone.
The result was an image with dark regions and light regions convincingly arranged. In a photo essay in Popular Photography magazine, Nickell demonstrated this technique step-by-step. In , researcher Jacques di Costanzo constructed a bas-relief of a Jesus-like face and draped wet linen over it. After the linen dried, he dabbed it with a mixture of ferric oxide and gelatine. The result was an image similar to that of the face on the Shroud. Instead of painting, it has been suggested that the bas-relief could also be heated and used to scorch an image onto the cloth.
However researcher Thibault Heimburger performed some experiments with the scorching of linen, and found that a scorch mark is only produced by direct contact with the hot object—thus producing an all-or-nothing discoloration with no graduation of color as is found in the shroud. The Maillard reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid and a reducing sugar. The cellulose fibers of the shroud are coated with a thin carbohydrate layer of starch fractions, various sugars, and other impurities.
Rogers also notes that their tests revealed that there were no proteins or bodily fluids on the image areas. Various people have claimed to have detected images of flowers on the shroud, as well as coins over the eyes of the face in the image, writing and other objects.
They did not find any images of flowers or coins or writing or any other additional objects on the shroud in either photograph, they noted that the faint images were "only visible by incrementing the photographic contrast", and they concluded that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, and possibly also to the alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic negative during its development in The existence of the coin images is rejected by most scientists.
Some proponents for the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin have argued that the image on the shroud was created by some form of radiation emission at the "moment of resurrection". No such effects can be observed in image fibers from the Shroud of Turin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 21 June Cloth bearing the alleged image of Jesus.
The Shroud of Turin: modern photo of the face, positive left , and digitally processed image right. Main article: History of the Shroud of Turin. Main article: Conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin. Main article: Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin. Main article: Fringe theories about the Shroud of Turin.
Religion portal Christianity portal Catholicism portal Italy portal. McCrone had identified the blood as red ochre and vermilion tempers paint. Left Coast Press, , p. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 September The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January National Catholic Reporter.
Bibcode : Natur. S2CID Taylor, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Routledge ; pp. Freer-Waters, A. Retrieved 2 January Chemistry World. Nature Materials. Bibcode : NatMa PMID Current Anthropology. JSTOR Currie, it is "widely accepted" that "the Shroud of Turin is the single most studied artifact in human history". Currie, Lloyd A. PMC In Kurian, G. The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization. Live Science.
Retrieved 9 April The orphaned manuscript: a gathering of publications on the Shroud of Turin. ISBN Retrieved 12 April Report on the Shroud of Turin. Houghton Mifflin. Architecture for the shroud: relic and ritual in Turin. University of Chicago Press. July Journal of Biological Photography. Applied Optics. Bibcode : ApOpt.. Our Sunday Visitor. Revue critique". New York: Pocket Books, BBC News.
Componimenti poetici sulla Sindone. Bolla di papa Giulio II Pellegrinaggio di S. Carlo Borromeo a Torino The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 March The New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved 29 March
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