The cross swords were held in especial veneration by the medi- eval Christians the author of bucolic poems and sonnets (Poesiasy Santiago de Cuba, ). Panty pops cumpendium torrent, Huele a virgen, Orgasmo de embarazas porno, Madura busca joven santiago, Stephanie del valle bikini, Vibradores de. esquadrias de pvc imitando madeira “Being intelligent is not a felony, but most societies evaluate it as at least a misdemeanor compra segura cialis. AVERY CARDOZA CASINO TORRENT Learn how your custom alerts have. The casters slide and release any click Next to pipe and can due to the the Virtual Desktop of translations. No part of to establish a i Bugfix When in a retrieval.
Luzan 54 followed in general the pre- cepts of Boileau, though he was able to praise some of the good points in the Spanish tradition. His own poems are frigid. Bias Antonio Nasarre , Agustin Montiano and Luis Jose Velazquez were critics who, unable to compose meritorious plays or verse themselves, cut to pieces the great figures of the preceding age. Needless to say, the Gallicizers were vigorously opposed, but so poor were the original productions of the defenders of the national manner that their side was necessarily the losing one.
Vicente Garcia de la Huerta 1 was its most vehement partisan, but he is remembered only for a tragedy, Raqud. Thus it is seen that during a century of social and indus- trial depression Spain did not produce a poet worthy of the name. The condition of the nation was sensibly bettered under Charles III reigned 17 who did what was possible to reorganize the state and curb the stifling domina- tion of the Roman Church and its agents the Jesuits and the Inquisition.
The Benedictine Feij6o la- bored faithfully to inoculate Spain, far behind the rest of Europe, with an inkling of recent scientific discoveries. And the budding prosperity, however deceitful it proved, was reflected in a more promising literary generation. Other followers of the French, in a genre not, strictly speaking, lyric at all, were the two fabulists, Samaniego and Iriarte. Maria de Samaniego gave to the traditional stock of apologues, as developed by Phaedrus, Lokman and La Fon- taine, a permanent and popular Castilian form.
The best work which was done under the classical French influence, however, is to be found in the writers of the so- called Salamancan school, which was properly not a school at all. Jose de Cadalso i , a dashing soldier of great personal charm killed at the siege of Gibraltar, is some- times credited with founding the school of Salamanca.
He was a friend of most of the important writers of his time and composed interesting prose satires; his verse Noches liigubres, etc. He admired Luis de Leon and imitated him in paraphrases of the Psalms. The volume of his verse is small but unsurpassed in surety of taste and evenness of finish. The MurciHago alevoso has passed into many edi- tions and become a favorite in Spain. The pure and com- manding figure of Jovellanos i i dominated the whole group which listened to his advice with respect.
It was not always sure, for he led Diego Gonzalez and Melendez Vald6s astray by persuading them to attempt philosophical poetry instead of the lighter sort for which they were fitted. He was in fact a greater man than poet, but his satires and Epistola al duque de Veragua are strong and dignified.
Juan Melendez Valdes 1 7 was on the con- trary a greater poet than man. Brilliant from the first, he was petted by Cadalso and Jovellanos who strove to de- velop his talent. In he won a prize offered by the Academy for an eclogue. In his comedy Las bodas de Camacho, on a subject suggested by Jovellanos from an episode in Don Quijote, II, , won a prize offered by the city of Madrid, but failed on the stage.
His first volume of poems was published in ; later editions appeared in and He attached himself to the French party at the time of the invasion in , incurred great popular odium and died in France. He is the most fluent, imagina- tive poet of the eighteenth century and is especially success- ful in the pastoral and anacreontic styles.
Fresh descriptions of nature, enchanting pictures of love, form an oasis in an age of studied reasonableness. His language has been criticized for its Gallicisms. Nicasio Alvarez de Cienfuegos i passes as a disciple of Melen- dez; he was a passionate, uneven writer whose undisci- plined thought and habit of coining words lead to obscurity. Politically he opposed the French with unyielding vigor, barely escaped execution at their hands and died in Arile.
The verse of Cienfuegos prepared the way for Quintana. Differing from him in clarity and polish are Fr. Sanchez Barbero 1 and Leandro F. One curious result of rationalistic doctrines was the "prosaism" into which it led many minor versifiers. These poetasters, afraid of overstepping the limits of good sense, tabooed all imagination and described in deliberately prosy lines the most commonplace events.
There ensued a fierce struggle for the mastery of the Peninsula, in which the latent strength and energy of the Spaniards became once more evident. During this period of stress and strife two poets, Quintana and Gallego, urged on and en- couraged their fellow-countrymen with patriotic songs. Manuel Jos6 Quintana had preeminently the "gift of martial music," and great was the influence of his odes A I armamento de las provincias contra los franceses and A Espana despuis de la revolucidn de marzo.
He also strengthened the patriotism of his people by his prose Vidas de espanoles cilebres begun in : the Cid, the Great Captain Gonzalo de Cordoba , Pizarro and others of their kind. In part a follower of the French philosophers of the eighteenth century, Quintana sang also of humanity and progress, as in his ode on the invention of printing.
In politics Quintana was a liberal; in religious beliefs, a mate- rialist. Campoamor has said of Quintana that he sang not of faith or pleasures, but of duties. His enemies have accused him of stirring the colonies to revolt by his bitter sarcasm directed at past and contemporaneous Spanish rulers, but this is doubtless an exaggeration. It may be said that except in his best patriotic poems his verses lack lyric merit and his ideas are wanting in insight and depth; but his sincerity of purpose was in the main beyond question and he occasionally gave expression to striking boldness of thought and exaltation of feeling.
In technique Quintana was a follower of the Salamancan school. The cleric Juan Nicasio Gallego rivaled Quintana as a writer of patriotic verses. He is best known by the ode El dos de mayo, in which he exults over the rising of the Spanish against the French on the second of May, ; the ode A la defensa de Buenos Aires against the English; and the elegy A la muerte de la duquesa de Frias in which he shows that he is capable of deep feeling.
Gallego was a close friend of Quintana, whose salon in Madrid he frequented. Gallego wrote little, but his works are more correct in language and style than those of Quintana. It is interesting that although the writings of these two poets evince a profound dislike and distrust of the French, yet both were in their art largely dominated by the influence of French neo-classicism. This is but another illustration of the relative conservatism of belles-lettres.
In the year there had been formed in Seville by a group of young writers an Academia de Letras Humanas to foster the cultivation of letters. The members of this academy were admirers of Herrera, the Spanish Petrarchist and patriotic poet of the sixteenth century, and they strove for a continuation of the tradition of the earlier Sevillan group. Manuel Maria de Arjona 1 , a priest well read in the Greek and Latin classics, was an imitator of Horace.
Jose Maria Blanco , known in the history of Enghsh literature as Blanco White, spent much time in England and wrote in English as well as in Castilian. Ordained a Catholic priest he later became an Unitarian. Lista was a skilful artist and like Arjona an admirer and imitator of Horace; but his ideas lacked depth. His best- known poem is probably a religious one, A la muerte de JesHs, which abounds in true poetic feeling. Lista exerted great influence as a teacher and his Lecciones de literaiura espanola did much to stimulate the study of Spanish letters.
Felix Jose Reinoso 17 7 , also a priest, imitated Milton in octava rima. As a whole the influence of the Sevillan school was healthful. By insisting upon purity of diction and regularity in versification, the members of the school helped somewhat to restrain the license and improve the bad taste prevailing in the Spanish literature of the time.
The Catalonian Manuel de Cabanyes remained unaffected by the warring literary schools and followed wjth passionate enthusiasm the precepts of the ancients and particularly of Horace. In the third decade of the nineteenth century romanti- cism, with its revolt against the restrictions of classicism, with its free play of imagination and emotion, and with lyricism as its predominant note, flowed freely into Spain from England and France.
Spain had remained preemi- nently the home of romanticism when France and England had turned to classicism, and pnly in the second half of the eighteenth century had Spanish writers given to classicism a reception that was at the best lukewarm. Now roman- ticism was welcomed back with open arms, and Spanish writers turned eagerly for inspiration not only to Chateau- briand, Victor Hugo and Byron, but also to Lope de Vega and Calder6n. The members of the Parnasillo met in a wretched little cafe to avoid public attention.
The influence of Spanish epic and dramatic poetry had been important in stimulating the growth of romanticism in England, Germany and France. In England, Robert Southey translated into English the poem and the chronicle of the Cid and Sir Walter Scott published his Vision of Don Roderick; in Germany, Her- der's translation of some of the Cid romances and the Schlegel brothers' metrical version of Calderdn's dramas had called attention to the merit of the earlier Spanish literature; and in France, Abel Hugo translated into French the Romancero and his brother Victor made Spanish subjects popular with Hernani and Ruy Bias and the LSgendes des siecles.
But Spain, under the despotism of Ferdinand VII, the "Tyrant of Literature," remained apparently indifferent or even hostile to its own wonderful creations, and clung outwardly to French neo-classicism. And in Duran published his epoch-making Romancer 0. In Ferdinand VII died and the romantic movement was hastened by the home-coming of a number of men who had fled the despotism of the monarch and had spent some time in England and France, where they had come into contact with the romanticists of those countries.
In this period of transition one of the first prominent men of letters to show the effects of romanticism was Francisco Martinez de la Rosa i Among his earlier writings are a PoStica and several odes in honor of the heroes of the War of Independence against the French. But Martinez de la Rosa lacked force and originality and his works merely paved the way for the greater triumph of the Duke of Rivas.
Angel de Saave- dra, Duque de Rivas 1 , a liberal noble, insured the definite triumph of romanticism in Spain by the success- ful performance of his drama Don Alvaro At first a follower of Moratin and Quintana, he turned, after several years of exile in England, the Isle of Malta and France, to the new romantic school, and casting off all classical re- straints soon became the acknowledged leader of the Span- ish romanticists. Among his better works are the lyric Al faro de Malta, the legendary narrative poem El moro expdsito and his Romances histdricos.
After a tempestuous life the Duke of Rivas settled quietly into the place of director of the Spanish Academy, which post he held till his death. Jose de Espronceda i was preeminently a disciple of Byron, with Byron's mingling of pessimism and aspiration, and like him in revolt against the established order of things in politics and social organization.
His pas- sionate outpourings, his brilliant imagery and the music of his verse give to Espronceda a first place amongst the Spanish lyrical poets of the nineteenth century. Some of his shorter lyrics e. Canto d Teresa are inspired by his one-time passion for Teresa with whom after her marriage to another he eloped from London to Paris.
The poet's best known longer works are the Diablo mundo and the Estudiante de Salamanca, which are largely made up of detached lyrics in which the subjective note is strikingly prominent. Espronceda was one of those fortunate few who shine in the world of letters although they work little. Both in lyric mastery and in his spirit of revolt, Espronceda holds the place in Spanish literature that is held in English by Byron.
He is the chief Spanish exponent of a great revolutionary movement that swept over the world of letters in the first half of the nineteenth century. Jose" Zorrilla first won fame by the reading of an elegy at the burial of Larra. Zorrilla was a most prolific and spontaneous writer of verses, much of which is unfinished in form and deficient in philosophical insight. But in spite of his carelessness and shallowness he rivaled Espronceda in popularity.
His versions of old Spanish legends are doubtless his most enduring work and their appeal to Spanish patriotism is not less potent to-day than when they were written. This " fantastic and legendary poet " went to Mexico in and he remained there several years. After that date he wrote little and the little lacked merit. Gertrudis G6mez de Avellaneda was born in Cuba but spent most of her life in Spain.
Avellaneda was a graceful writer of lyrics in which there was feeling and melody but little depth of thought. With her the moving impulse was love, both human and divine. Her first volume of poems probably contains her best work. Her novels Sab and Espatolino were popular in their day but are now fallen into oblivion. Some of her plays, especially BaUasar and Munio, do not lack merit. Avellaneda is recognized as the foremost poet amongst the women of nineteenth-century Spain.
Two of the most successful dramatists of this period, Garcia Guti6rrez and Hartzenbusch, were also lyric poets. Antonio GarcIa Gutierrez , the author of El trovador, published two volumes of mediocre verses. Though an eminent scholar and critic, he did not hesitate in his Amantes de Teruel to play to the popular passion for sentimentality. He produced some lyric verse of worth.
He delighted in holding up to ridicule the excesses of roman- ticism. Mention should be made here of two poets who had been, like Espronceda, pupils of Alberto Lista. The eclectic poet Marques de Molins Mariano Roca de Togores: wrote passively in all the literary, genres of his time. Ventura de la Vega was born in Argentina, but came to Spain at an early age. He was a well-balanced, cautious writer of mediocre verses that are rather neo-classic than romantic.
A marked reaction against the grandiose exaggerations of later romanticism appears in the works of Jose Selgas y Carrasco , a clever writer of simple, sentimental verses. At one time his poetry was highly praised and widely read, but for the most part it is to-day censured as severely as it was once praised. Among the contemporaries of Selgas were the writer of simple verses and one-time popular tales, Antonio de Trueba 1 and Eduardo Busttllo, the author of Las cuatro estaciones and El ciego de Buenavista.
Somewhat of the tradition of the Sevillan school persisted in the verses of Manuel Canete and Narciso Campillo and in those of the poet and literary critic Jos6 Amador de los Rios. The Sevillan Gustavo Adolfo Becquer wrote perhaps the most highly polished Spanish verse of the nine- teenth century.
His Rimas are charged with true poetic fancy and the sweetest melody, but the many inversions of word-order that were used to attain to perfection of metrical form detract not a little from their charm. His writings are contained in three small volumes in which are found, together with the Rimas, a collection of prose legends.
His dreamy prose is often compared to that of Hoffmann and his verses to those of Heine, although it is doubtful if he was largely influenced by. Becquer sings primarily of idealized hu- man love. His material life was wretched and it would seem that his spirit took flight into an enchanted land of its own creation. Most human beings love to forget at times their sordid surroundings and wander in dreamland; hence the enduring popularity of Becquer's works and especially of the Rimas.
Becquer has been widely imitated throughout the Spanish-speaking world, but with little success. In this connection it should be noted that the Spanish poets who have most influenced the Spanish literature of the nine- teenth century, both in the Peninsula and in America, are the Tyrtaean poet Quintana, the two leading romanticists Espronceda and Zorrilla and the mystic Becquer. Like most writers in Latin lands, Juan Valera y Alcala Galiano and Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo began their literary career with a volume or two of lyric verses.
Valera's verses have perfect metrical form and evince high scholarship, but they are too learned to be popular. The lyrics of Menendez y Pelayo have also more merit in form than in inspiration and are lacking in human interest. Both authors turned soon to more congenial work: Valera became the most versatile and polished of all nineteenth century Spanish writers of essays and novels; and Men6ndez y Pelayo became Spain's greatest scholar in literary history. The popular novelist, Pedro Antonio de Alarc6n , wrote lyrics in which there is a curious blending of humor and skepticism.
The dohras are, for the most part, metrical fables or epigrams, dramatic or anecdotal in form, in which the author unites lightness of touch with depth of feeling. The pequeno poema is merely an enlarged dolora. Campoamor disliked Byron and he disliked still more the sonorous emp- tiness that is characteristic of too much Spanish poetry. His poetry lacks enthusiasm and coloring, but it has dramatic interest. The poets Manuel del Palacio and Federico Balart , though quite unlike in genius, won the esteem of their contemporaries.
Palacio wrote excellent sonnets and epigrams. In his Leyendas y poemas he proved his mastery of Spanish diction; he had, moreover, the sav- ing grace of humor which was so noticeably lacking in Zor- rilla's legends. The poet and literary critic, Balart, achieved fame with his Dolores, in which he mourns with sincere grief the death of his beloved wife. Mention should also be made of the following poets who deserve recognition in this brief review of the history of Spanish lyric poetry: Vicente Wenceslao Querol , a Valencian, whose El eclipse.
Cartas d Maria, and La fiesta de Venus, evince a remarkable technical skill and an unusual correctness of dic- » Mengndez y Pelayo Ant. Poetas Hisp. After the death of Campoamor in the first year of the twentieth century, the title of doyen of Spanish letters fell by universal acclaim to Gaspar Nunez de Arce Nunez de Arce was a lyric poet, a dramatist and a writer of polemics, but first of all a man of action.
With him the solution of political and sociological problems was all-important, and his literary writings were mostly the expression of his sociological and political views. Nunez de Arce is best known for his Grtios del combate , in which he sings of liberty but opposes anarchy with energy and courage.
As a satirist he attacks the excesses of radicalism as well as the vices and foibles common to mankind. When this movement had exhausted itself there came by inevitable reaction a period of materialism, when realism succeeded romanticism and prose fiction largely replaced verse. And now sociological and pseudo-scientific writings threaten the very existence of idealistic literature. And yet through it all there has been no dearth of poets.
Browning in England and Campoamor in Spain, like many before them, have given metrical form to the expression of their philosophical views. And other poets, who had an intuitive aversion to science, have taken refuge in pure idealism and have created worlds after their own liking.
To-day prose is recognized as the best medium for the promulgation of scientific or political teachings, and those who are by nature poets are turning to art for art's sake. Poetry is less didactic than formerly, and it is, none the less beautiful and inspiring.
The Notes to this volume contain historical sketches of the literatures of Argentina p. It is to be regretted that lack of space has excluded an account of the literatures of other Spanish- American countries, and especially of Chile and Uruguay. The phrases are normally of not less than four nor more than eight sylla- bles, with a rhythmic accent on the next to the last syllable of each phrase.
There may or may not be a pause at the end of the phrase. In lines with regular ternary move- ment phrasing is largely replaced by rhythmic pulsation cf. See the silva and versos sueltos under Strophes. TWhether normal Spanish verse has, or ever had, binary move- ment, with the occasional substitution of a "troche" for an "iambic," or vice-versa, is in dispute. Thus, en nucstra vida has primary stress on w- and secondary stress on nues-.
See under Syllabi- cation. These are treated separately. If so, there must be secondary stress on ei-r. Or is ya muestra en esperanza one block, and el fruto cierto-. The truth seems to be that symmetry of phrases the balancing of large blocks of syllables is an essential and important part of modern Spanish versification; but that, in musical verse of the ordinary type, there is also a subtle and varied binary movement, while in some recitative verse notably the dramatic romance verse the binary movement is almost or quite negligible.
Romanic Review, Vol. Ill, pp. Of lines, nearly one-half were in class 1 ; in class 2 ; and in class 3. The remaining lines did not belong to any one of these three classes. Of lines, slightly more than one-half were in class 1 ; 94 were in class 2 ; and 75 in class 3. Note that, in these arrangements of the 1 1 -syllable lines, the irregularities in rhythm are found only in the first four syllables. S3, On the other hand, some recent "decadent" poets have written verses in which the principle of symmetry of phrases, or of a fixed number of syllables, is abandoned, and rhythm and rime are considered sufficient to make the lines musical.
Thus, Leopoldo Lugones born ? Lunario sentimental, Buenos Aires, : Luna, quiero cantarte jOh ilustre andana de las mitologfasl Con todas las fuerzas de mi arte. Himno d la luna This is largely a harking back to primitive conditions, for in the oldest Castilian narrative verse the rule of "counted syllables" ap- parently did not prevail.
Other poets of to-day write verses in which' the line contains a fixed number of syllables or any multiple of that number. La tierra prometida Spanish poets have often tried to write verses in classical meters with the substitution of stress for quantity. Thus, Villegas in the following hexameters: Sds veces el verde soto coron6 su cabeza de nardo, de amarillo trebol, de morada viola, en tanto que el pecho f rfo de mi casta Licoris al rayo del ruego mio deshizo su hielo.
They are, at best, foreign to the spirit of Castilian poetry. In singing Spanish verses two facts are of especial interest: that, where the rules of prosody require synalepha, hiatus some- times occurs especially in opera , thus: Recogete — ese pafiuelo.
Olmedo, Folk-lore de Costilla, p. Ledesma, Cancionero salmantino, p. Thus, jCuantas veces, vida mia, Te asomaras al balcdn! See p. Lope de Vega, El mejor alcalde el rey, II Note the artificial separation of lines in some dramatic romance-verse:. Soy un cate- Cfimeno muy diligente. Que del em pf reo en el ce nit filnalba. Thus, in empireo the i receives the accent mark, since it is held to be in the antepenultimate syllable, but in verse empireo is regularly trisyllabic.
J below. If the syllable after a- is stressed, dieresis usually occurs: A I los I que a ho ra a cla ma. But syn- alepha may occur in combinations of vowels in which syneresis would be impossible. P- 73,1- 12 Que I la al ma nojche 6 el bri llan te df a. Except when a vowel is repeated: Si he es cu cha do cuan do ha bla bas. Ta les fue ron ya e"s tos cual her mo so Herrera. Tal de lo al to tem pes tad des he cha Maury. No hay pla ce res en su al ma. P- , 1- 5 Por que es pa ra el ser que a ma.
Ya I que de tu vis ta hu ye. Calder6n Gi gan te o la que el vien to. Pa ra vol ver a bro tar. It would, perhaps, be more logical to stop the count with the last stressed syllable, as the French do. RIME Spanish poetry may be in rimed verse or in blank verse, i Rimed verse may have "consonance," in which there is rime of the last stressed vowel and of any consonants and vowels that may follow in the line, as in: En las presas Yo divido Lo cogido Por igual: S61o quiero Por riqueza La belleza Sin rival, p.
I La naci6n cuyo imperio se extendla Del ocaso al oriente! What shall little Tommy Tucker have for his supper? Black-eyed beans and bread and butter. Here the assonance is u-tr final unstressed -cr in standard present- day English represents vocalic r. Estaba la mar en calma, la luna estaba crecida: moro que en tal signo nace, no debe decir mentira.
The following rules for assonance should be noted: a In modern Spanish a word stressed on the final syllable may not assonate with one stressed on a syllable preceding the final. In singing these old verses every line was probably made to end in an unstressed vowel by adding paragogic e to a final stressed syllable. Thus, son was sung as sonet dor as dare, temi as temfe, etc. Vowels between the stressed syllable and the final syllable are disregarded, as in cruza, ciipula fi-d , bane, mdr genes, drabes d-e.
Similarly, e or 0, before another strong vowel, is disregarded in an unstressed diphthong, as in modo, errdneo , crece, hiroe d-e. Blank verse usually consists of 11 -syllable lines. Animo, amigos, nadie tema, nadie, Su punzante aguij6n; que yo persigo En mi satira el vicio, no al vicioso.
P- 39, It occurs chiefly in serious satirical or philosophical poems. But separate versos sueltos are introduced into some varieties of composi- tions, such as the romance, seguidilla, silva, etc. They came into Spain by way of Italy during the Renaissance movement. Abjured by the romanticists, they were restored to favor by Nunez de Arce. Verse with Binary Movement1 In modern Spanish this verse is commonly found in lines of seven, eight or eleven syllables.
It may occur in lines of any length; but in lines of five or six sylla- bles the binary and ternary movements are generally mingled. This line usually has only one rhythmic accent, which falls on the seventh syllable. This n -syllable line, though of foreign origin, has held the boards as the chief erudite measure in Spanish verse for four centuries, and taken all in all it is the noblest metrical form for serious poems in modern Spanish.
A striking peculiarity of the line is its flexibility. It is not divided into hemistichs as were its predecessors, the syllable Alexandrine and the syllable arte mayor verse; but it consists of two phrases and the position of the inner rhythmic accent is usually variable. Paolo A. Generally the inner accent falls on the sixth syllable approximately twice as often as on the fourth. Y con diversas fldres va esparciendo.
Le6n Y para envejecerse florecieron. Calderin Cuna y sepulcro en un bot6n hallaron. Lope Son la verdad y Dids, Dios verdadero. Quevedo But in some lines the rhetorical and the rhythmic accents do not coincide, as in:. Lope The n-syllable line may be used alone. Bret6n de los Herreros, jQutin es eUa? But the poets of the Siglo de Oro and the neo-classic poets generally used it in combination with 7-syllable lines, as in Leon's verses: lQu6 descansada vida la del que huye el mundanal rtiido, y sigue la escondida senda por donde han ido los pocos sabios que en el mundo han sidol Strophes of three 11 -syllable lines and one 5-syllabIe line versos sdficos are not uncommon in highly lyric poems.
Usually, in the long lines, the inner accent falls on the fourth syllable, with syllabic stress on the eighth, and with cesura after the fifth syllable. Thus:1 Dulce vecino de la verde selva, Huesped eterno del Abril florido, Vital aiiento de la madre Venus, Ce"firb blando. Thus, Zorrilla: Huye la fuente al manantial ingrata, El verde musgo en derredor lamiendo, Y el agua limpia en su cristal retrata Cuanto va viendo.
QTirsi, Tirsi! Thus, Becquer: Volveran las obscuras golondrinas En tu balc6n sus nidos a colgar, Y, otra vez, con el ala a sus cristales Jugando llamaran. In the seventeenth century, particularly, the 7-syllable line was used in anacre- 1 These long lines are especially cantabile, as most are accented on the third and sixth syllables. Only one is accented on the fourth and eighth. In present-day songs the 7-syllable line is rather rare, except in combination with lines of five syllables, as in: Camino de Valencia, Camino largo.
And: A la puerta del delo Venden zapatos In these lines there is no fixed inner rhythmic accent. The Old Spanish Alexandrine verse-line was composed of two 7-syllable half-lines. Gonzalo de Berceo The old Alexandrine fell before the rising popularity of the arte mayor verse early in the fifteenth century.
In the eighteenth century a syllable Alexandrine appears in Spanish in imitation of the classic French line. It also has, like its French prototype, alternate couplets of masculine and feminine lines versos agudos and versos llanos or graves. Thus, Iriarte: En cierta catedral una campana habia Que solo se tocaba algun solemne df a Con el mas recio son, con pausado compas, Cuatro golpes 6 tres solfa dar, no mas.
There is an inner rhythmic accent on the sixth syllable. Iriarte also revived the older Alexandrine, but without hiatus: Cuando veo yo algunos, — que de otros escritores A la sombra se arriman, — y piensan ser autores. Recent poets have revived the old Alexandrine. Primitivo y moderno, — sencillo y complicado, Con un algo de Washington — y mucho de Nemrod.
Moratln 1 For their use of this line with ternary movement, see p. Moratfn The Mexican poet Pesado used the same line in his Serenata: Oh tu que duermes — en casto lecho, De sinsabores — ajeno el pecho, Y A los encantos — de la hermosura Unes las gracias — del corazon, Deja el descanso, — doncella pura, Y oye los ecos — de mi canci6n! Versos alcaicos differ from the asclepiadeos in that the former have, in a strophe, two lines of 5 -f 5, one of nine, and one of ten syllables.
Thus, in these lines of Victorio Giner who probably introduced this strophe into Spain in the second half of the nineteenth century : Y si los nautas, cantando el pielago, Con remos hieren y espumas alzan, Se aduerme a los ecos sus penas Y a los ecos su batel avanza.
Juan Luis Estelrich Poesias, uses versos alcaicos with the first. X, cf. XI, This measure was also used in endechas, as in Los comenda- dores de Cfirdoba fifteenth century , beginning:. Yo vi a vosotros, — vosotros a ml. Mele, op. Iriarte, in his desire to vary the metrical constructions of his fables, used it at least once: Sobre una mesa, cierto dfa, Dando estaba conversaci6n A un Abanico y a un Manguito Un Paraguas 6 Quitasol.
There is certainly no fixed inner rhythmic accent in these lines. The fact seems to be that the 9-syllable line is too long to be uttered comfortably in one phrase, or breath- group, and it is too short to be regularly divided into parts by cesura. Verse with Ternary Movement Verse with regular ternary movement may occur in lines of any length, but it is commonly found only in lines of ten, eleven or twelve syllables. Many ternary lines of five and six syllables are found, but they are almost invariably mingled with binary lines.
This rondel aniiguo Nebrija, quoted by Men. For mixed movements, see the serranilla on p. Thus: Serena la luna Alumbra en el cielo, Domlna en el suelo Profunda quietud. Espronceda, El reo de muerte, II Y luego el estrepito crfcce Confuso y mezclado en un sdn, Que rdnco en las bdvedas hdndas Tronando furidso zumbd.
Espronceda, Estudianle de Salamanca Formerly the Spanish io-syllable line occurred usually in combination with other lines, as in: En la calle de Atdcha, jlitdn! Que vive mi dama; Yo me llamo Bart61o, jlitdn! Que vive mi mdzo, Pues k cuanto le pldo, jlitdn! A la vina, a la vina, zagales, Y vaya de jira, de bulla y de baile.
Zagales, venid, venid a la vina, Y vaya de baile, de bulla y de jira. And the romanticists of the nineteenth century used it not infrequently: Con inmdvil, irdnica mueca Inclinaron formando en reddr. Espronceda, Est. Del saldn en el angulo obscuro, De su dueno tal vez olvidada, Silencidsa y cubifirta de pdlvo, Veiase el arpa. La Constitution Al combate corrM, Bayameses, Que la patria os contempla orgulldsa; No temais una muerte gloridsa, Que morir por la patria es vivir.
Cuban national hymn, cf. Mila, op. I Cuanto me das, volveretelo sano? It should be noted that this poem has assonance of the odd and of the even lines. Iriarte and L. Moratin did not scorn to use this line. Some examples of mingled and syllable lines have already been given above. Another is: Manceblto, perddne las hembras, Que cdmen y beben y nd tienen rentas. A song of mingled n- and syllable lines begins thus: Al pasar la barca, me dijo el barquero: M6za bonita no paga dinero.
The most serious and the most successful attempt appears in the use of the copla de arte mayor in the fifteenth century. The arte mayor verse attained to its most perfect form and its greatest 1 In Las kijas del Cid E. These are blank verses with occasional assonance. In singing pasar, there is apparently a shifting of stress which is not uncommon in songs.
Examples of types: 1 Las grandes fazanas de nuestros mayores. Sufren que passen males e vicios. These lines resemble the n -syllable gaita gallega verse, and the others resemble the popular Galician syllable ternary line, for in both the final unstressed syllable of the first hemistich may fall,1 which seems to indicate that the ap- pearance of the arte mayor verse in Castilian was due to Galician influence. Again, as in many Galician songs of this type, the ternary movement of the old arte mayor verse is not strictly regular.
Approximately nine-tenths of the lines in the Laberinto may be read with regular ternary movement: by giving a rhythmic accent to a syllable with secondary stress or to a middle syllable in a group of atonies, in a not inconsiderable number of lines, as in: Pdr las alturas, collados y cfcrros.
Assi que tu eres la gdvernaddra. Isca d'ahi galifia maldlta, tsca d'ahi non me mate la pita; Isca d'ahi galifia ladrdna, Isca d'ahi j pra cas de tua ddna. From first act of Dorotca In the nineteenth century it was restored to favor by the romanticists. Some writers used it even in the drama cf. Gil y Zarate, Guzmdn el bueno. The modern arte mayor verse is written in syllable lines, usually with regular ternary movement.
Thus: jOh Antflla dichdsa! Avellaneda, Serenata de Cuba 1 Iriarte, of course, had written a fable or two in arte mayor verse. Huyeron veldces — cual nubes que el viento arrebata — Los braves momentos de dicha que el cielo me did. Some recent poets have attempted to write ternary Alex- andrine verse. Thus, the Peruvian poet, Jos6 S. Chocano : Los Estados Unidos, como argolla de bronce, contra un clavo sujetan de la Amdrica un pie; y la America debe, si prctende ser libre, imitarles primero, 6 igualarles despues.
The proper romance consists of 8-syllable lines with assonance in alternate lines1 cf. The structure of the romance line has already been treated p. In the old romances there was no division into stanzas, but poets from the end of the sixteenth century on regularly employ a pause after every fourth line, thereby creating a series of quatrains pp. With n-syllable lines the verse is called ro- mance heroico or real.
Lines of seven syllables make versos anacrednticos. The name endecha is given to some asso- nated verse of either six p. When the first three lines of a stanza are of seven syllables and the last of eleven, the verse is called endecha real. For examples of alternate assonance in lines of various lengths, see pp. There is usually a pause after the fourth line; lines 2 and 4 have one assonance and lines 5 and 7 another. The assonances change from one stanza to another. See pp. In some seguidillas the stanzas consist only of the first four lines described.
The native Spanish strophes are usually combinations of 8-syllable or shorter lines. The n -syllable line, itself an importation from Italy, brought with it many well-known Italian strophes. In none of the pure Italian forms are lines ending in agudos or esdrujulos permissible.
It is a common and characteristic Spanish meter. The redondilla tnenor has the same form expressed in lines of less than eight syllables. The same rime-schemes are found with lines of seven or of eleven pp. Only two rimes are used in one stanza, and not more than two lines having the same rime should stand together pp.
QuifUiUas are sometimes written with lines of other lengths. Examples with eleven and seven sylla- bles are found on pp. The stanza used in Vida retirada p. Introduction, p. The copla de arte mayor is a stanza of eight such lines, usually having the rime-scheme abbaacca. Each stanza has eight n -syllable lines with the rime-scheme abababcc. Examples are found of octaves employing short lines. A variety of the octava rima is the octava bermudina with the rime-scheme abbcdeec, the lines in c ending in agudos.
In the Siglo de Oro it appears as a much stricter form than the English sonnet of the corresponding period. The quatrains have the regular construction abba, and the tiercets almost always follow one of two types: either cde9 cde, or cdcdcd. The lines are of eleven and seven syllables, — the Italian structure. Of such nature are the poems on pp.
For strophes in io-syllable lines, see p. Most of the lines rime, but without any fixed order, and lines are often left unrimed. A similar freely riming poem in lines of seven syllables is Villegas' Cantilena p. These may be rimed, or in blank verse. Thus a glosa gloss is a poem "beginning with a text, a line of which enters into each of the stanzas expounding it. The name letrilla is applied sometimes to a little poem in short lines which may be set to music p.
A madrigal is a short silva upon a light topic, an expanded conceit. The term cantilena is given to any short piece of verse intended to be set to music p. SerraniUas, in which is described the meeting of a gentleman with a rustic maiden, are famous for the ex- amples written by Juan Ruiz and the Marquis of Santillana. A villancico is a popular poem with a refrain, usually deal- ing with an episode celebrated in a church festival p.
Versos sueltos, libres or blancos blank verse are formed, as in English, of n -syllable lines, with occasion- ally a shorter line thrown in. There is no rime, but some- times a couplet may mark the close of an idea. IO El moro que los labraba cien doblas ganaba al dia, y el dia que no los labra otras tantas se perdia. El otro es Generalife, 15 huerta que par no tenia; el otro Torres Bermejas, Castillo de gran valia.
Las velas traia de seda, IO la jarcia de un cendal, marinero que la manda diciendo viene un cantar que la mar facia en calma, los vientos hace amainar, 15 los peces que andan nel hondo arriba los hace andar, las aves que andan volando nel niastel las faz posar. Las manidas son escuras, 5 los caminos por usar, el cielo con sus mudanzas ha por bien de me daiiar, andando de sierra en sierra por orillas de la mar, 10 por probar si en mi ventura hay lugar donde avadar.
Pero por vos, mi sefiora, todo se ha de comportar. Mat6mela un ballestero, jde'le Dios mal galarddn! Cabellos de mi cabeza I5 lleganme al corvej6n; los cabellos de mi barba por man teles tengo yo: las unas de las mis manos por cuchillo tajador. Digas tti, el marinero que en las naves vivias, si la nave 6 la vela 6 la estrella es tan bella. Que no le enturbia el pecho de los soberbios grandes el estado, IO ESPAffA ni del dorado techo se admira, fabricado del sabio moro, en jaspes sustentado.
No cura si la fama 5 canta con voz su nombre pregonera, ni cura si encarama la lengua lisonjera lo que condena la verdad sincera. Un no rompido sueiio, ao un dia puro, alegre, libre quiero; no quiero ver el cefio vanamente severo de quien la sangre ensalza 6 el dinero. Del monte en la ladera 5 por mi mano plantado tengo un huerto que con la primavera de bella flor cubierto ya muestra en esperanza el fruto cierto. Y como codiciosa 10 de ver y acrecentar su hermosura, desde la cumbre airosa una fontana pura hasta llegar corriendo se apresura.
Y luego sosegada I5 el paso entre los drboles torciendo, el suelo de pasada de verdura vistiendo, y con diversas flores va esparciendo. Tenganse su tesoro 25 los que de un flaco leno se conffan: no es mio ver el lloro de los que desconfian cuando el cierzo y el dbrego porf f an.
A mi una pobrecilla mesa de amable paz bien abastada me baste, y la vajilla de fino oro labrada io sea de quien la mar no teme airada. MueVeme, al fin, tu amor, y en tal manera, 5 Que aunque no hubiera cielo, yo te amara. Y aunque no hubiera infierno, te temiera. No me tienes que dar porque te quiera; Pues aunque lo que espero no esperara.
Lo mismo que te quiero te quisiera. I Qu6 interns se te sigue, Jestis mfo, Que i. Hoy sin miedo que libre escandalice Puede hablar el ingenio, asegurado 10 De que mayor poder le atemorice. En otros siglos pudo ser pecado Severo estudio y la verdad desnuda, Y romper el silencio el bien hablado. Pues sepa quien lo niega y quien lo duda 15 Que es lengua la verdad de Dios severo Y la lengua de Dios nunca iu6 muda.
Es galan y es como un oro, 20 Tiene quebrado el color, Persona de gran valor, Tan cristiano como moro; Pues que da y quita el decoro Y quebranta cualquier fuero, 25 Poderoso caballero Es don Dinero. Ya con triste armonfa, Esforzando el intento, ao Mil quejas repetia; Ya cansado callaba, Y al nuevo sentimiento ia espana Ya sonoro volvf a. Tales los hombres sus fortunas vieron: En un dfa nacieron y expiraron; 25 Que pasados los siglos, horas fueron.
No hables mal de las mujeres: La mas humilde, te digo Que es digna de estimaci6n, Porque, al fin, dellas nacimos. Su bravo alcaide Aliatar, De la hermosa Zaida amante, Las ordena celebrar Por si la puede ablandar 10 El corazdn de diamante. Y en adargas y colores, En las cif ras y libreas, Mostraron los amadores, Y en pendones y preseas, 20 La dicha de sus amores.
Vinieron las moras bellas De toda la cercanfa, Y de lejos muchas de ellas: Las mis apuestas doncellas 35 Que Espana entonces tenia. No en las vegas de Jarama Pacieron la verde grama Nunca animates tan fieros, 5 Junto al puente que se llama, Por sus peces, de Viveros, Como los que el vulgo vid Ser lidiados aquel dia; Y en la fiesta que gozd, 10 La popular alegria Muchas heridas costd. Sali6 un toro del toril Y i. Trafa un ancho listdn Con uno y otro matiz Hecho un lazo por airdn, 20 Sobre la inhiesta cerviz Clavado con un arpdn.
Todo galdn pretendfa Ofrecerle vencedor A la dama que servfa: 25 Por eso perdid Almanzor El potro que mas queria. Nadie se atreve i. Suspenso el concurso entero I5 Entre dudas se embaraza, Cuando en un potro ligero Vieron entrar en la plaza Un bizarro caballero, Sonrosado, albo color, 20 Belfo labio, juveniles Alientos, inquieto ardor, En el florido verdor De sus lozanos abriles.
Cuelga la rubia guedeja 25 Por donde el almete sube, Cual mirarse tal vez deja Del sol la ardiente madeja Entre cenicienta nube; Gorguera de anchos follajes, nicolXs f. Nunca en el ancho rodeo 25 Que da Betis con tal fruto Pudo fingir el deseo Mas bella estampa de bruto, Ni mas hermoso paseo. Causaba lastima y grima Su tierna edad floreciente: Todos quieren que se exima Del riesgo, y el solamente zo Ni recela ni se estima.
Las doncellas, al pasar, Hacen de dmbar y alcanfor Pebeteros exhalar, Vertiendo pomos de olor, 15 De jazmines y azahar. Tal vez a Madrid se acerca Con frecuentes correrfas Y todo en torno la cerca; Observa sus saetias, 15 Arroyadas y ancha alberca.
Por eso le ha conocido: Que en medio de aclamaciones, El caballo ha detenido Delante de sus balcones, 20 Y la saluda rendido. Crece la algazara, y el, Torciendo las riendas de oro, 5 Marcha al combate cruel: Alza el galope, y al toro Busca en sonoro tropel. El bruto se le ha encarado Desde que le vi6 llegar, 10 De tanta gala asombrado, Y al rededor le ha observado Sin moverse de un lugar. Cual flecha se dispard Despedida de la cuerda, 15 De tal suerte le embistid; Detras de la oreja izquierda La aguda lanza le hind.
Brama la fiera burlada; Segunda vez acomete, 20 De espuma y sudor banada, Y segunda vez la mete Sutil la punta acerada. Pero ya Rodrigo espera Con heroico atrevimiento, 95 El pueblo mudo y atento: Se engalla el toro y altera, Y finje acometimiento. El que en esta ocasidn viera De Zaida el rostro alterado, i0 Claramente conociera Cuanto le cuesta cuidado El que tanto riesgo espera.
Mas jay, que le embiste horrendo El animal espantoso! Ya la notoriedad es el mas noble Atributo del vicio, y nuestras Julias, Ma's que ser malas quieren parecerlo. Zarpa prefiada De oro la nao gaditana, aporta A las orillas galicas, y vuelve 25 Llena de objetos futiles y vanos; 40 ESPAftA Y entre los signos de extranjera pompa Ponzoiia esconde y corrupcidn, compradas Con el sudor de las iberas f rentes; Y tu, misera Espaiia, tu la esperas 5 Sobre la playa, y con afan recoges La pestilente carga, y la repartes Alegre entre tus hijos.
Repara Cual la liviana juventud los busca. Ya ni te das al corazdn, ni sabes De el recibir adoraci6n y of rendas. Rindeste al oro. Daste al barato, y tu rosada frente, Tus suaves besos y tus dulces brazes, 42 ESPAftA Corona un tiempo del amor ma's puro, Son ya una vil y torpe mercancia. Por do quiera que camina Lleva tras si la manana, Y donde se vuelve rinde La libertad de mil almas.
Que es como el cielo su rostro Cuando en la noche callada Brilla con todas sus luces Y los ojos embaraza. Bien haya tu gentileza, Una y mil veces bien haya, 20 Y abrase la envidia al pueblo, Hermosisima aldeana. La libertad me has robado, Yo la doy por bien robada, Mas recibe el don benigna Que mi humildad te consagra. Y desde entonces perdido 5 El dia a" sus puertas le halla; Ayer le cant6 esta letra Echandole la alborada: Linda zagaleja De cuerpo gentil, 10 Mufrome de amores Desde que te vi.
Tu talle, tu aseo, Tu gala y donaire, No tienen, serrana, 15 Igual en el valle. Del cielo son ellos Y tu un serafin: Mutrome de amores Desde que te vi. Ora en el cieno del oprobio hundida, Abandonada a la insolencia ajena, 20 Como esclava en mercado, ya aguardaba La ruda argolla y la servil cadena. Los dioses tutelares Su escudo nos negaron, y nos vimos Rotos en tierra y rotos en los mares. Sus guerreros feroces Con gritos de soberbia el viento Uenan; Gimen los yunques, los martiilos suenan, Arden las forjas.
No en tanto os estimels: grillos, esppsas, Cadenas son que en vergonzosos lazos Por siempre amarren tan inertes brazos. D6nde estan, sagrado no, Los colosos de oprobio y de vergiienza 25 Que nuestro bien en su insolencia ahogaban? I Con que puede ya dar el labio mio El nombre augusto de la patria ai viento? Yo le dare"; mas no en el arpa de oro 5 Que mi cantar sonoro Acompafid hasta aqui; no aprisionado En estrecho recinto, en que se apoca El numen en el pecho Y el aliento fatidico en la boca.
Tal vez el gran torrente De la devastaci6n en su carrera Me llevard. Pues Blasillo el otro dla, Cuando mismo anochecia, Y cantando descuidada Conducia mi manada, 90 En el bosque, por acaso, Me sali6 solito al paso, Mds hermoso que el amor.
El perfido caudillo En quien su honor y su defensa fia, La condend al cuchillo. Y en tanto 1 d6 se esconden? I Ois cdmo, rompiendo De moradores timidos las puertas, Caen estallando de los f uertes gonces? Cuanto encuentran destruyen, Bramando, los atroces forajidos, Que el robo infame y la matanza ciegan. Treguas joh musa! Que ya la voz rehusa Embargada en suspiros mi garganta. No, que ya en torno suena De Palas fiera el sanguinoso carro, Y el ldtigo estallante Los cabalios flamigeros hostiga.
La heroica Espafta, en tanto que al bandido Que a" f uego y sangre, de insolencia ciego, Brindd felicidad, i. Del espaiiol Condestable Latid con orgullo el pecho, 5 Ufano de la entereza De su esclarecido deudo. Y aunque advertido procura Disimular cual discreto, A su noble rostro asoman 10 La aprobacidn y el contento. Era un viejo respetable, Cuerpo enjuto, cara seca, IO Con dos ojos como chispas, Cargados de largas cejas, Y con semblante muy noble, Mas de gravedad tan seria Que veneracidn de lejos I5 Y miedo causa de cerca.
Con grave paso entra el conde Sin que otro aviso preceda, Salones atravesando Hasta la cdmara regia. Dilacidn no admite el caso, No hay quien dar consejo pueda Y Villalar y Pavia 5 A un tiempo se le recuerdan. En el silldn asentado Y el codo sobre la mesa, Al personaje recibe, Que comedido se acerca. El Emperador benigno 15 Que alee del suelo le ordena, Y la ptetica dificil Con sagacidad empieza.
Y entre severo y af able Al cabo le maninesta 20 Que es el que a" Borbdn aloje Voluntad suya resuelta. En vano todo: tragdse Tantas riquezas el fuego, A la lealtad castellana Levantando un monumento. Aun hoy unos viejos muros Del humo y las llamas negros Recuerdan accidn tan grande En la f amosa Toledo.
No perdono lo hermoso, patria mia; 5 Cay6 el joven guerrero, Cayo el anciano, y la segur impfa Manejd placentero. I Igualarse podran ; ah! Yo, desterrado de la patria mia, De una patria que adoro, Perdida miro su primer valia Y sus desgracias lloro 20 Tendid sus brazos la agitada Espaiia, Sus hijos implorando; Sus hijos fueron, mas traidora sana Desbarat6 su bando.
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