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In other words, recognizing that we make up what we are does not mean that we stop imagining ourselves, but can, on the contrary, be seen as a call for political and representational agency. Consequently, if identity is not regarded as something given that needs to be discovered but as something that is constructed by the subjects it represents, the undecidable nature of the haunted island is not a source of political frustration but a representational opportunity to rethink and build the island-nation.

To sum up, the cycle of Saint Brendan, stretching from the Navigatio up to its more recent rebirths in the Canary Islands, has haunted the imagination of Canary Islands nationalism from its very beginnings. Above all, the ambivalent interstices of the haunted island allow for the nation to be imagined and counter-imagined in a number of ways, enabling representational agency to be expressed in a pluralistic and democratic fashion.

Discos Manzana, Benito Ruano, Eloy. Comedia del recibimiento. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Domibari, Siete islas un solo pueblo. De Sancho, Juan Carlos. Delgado, Secundino. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Benchomo, Intrahistoria del nacionalismo canario.

La Laguna: Ediciones Ka, Historia del nacionalismo canario. La Laguna: Editorial Benchomo, Gil Chica, Francisco Javier, trans. Web5 Jul Guerra Mansito, Pedro. Centro de la Cultura Popular Canaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Ediciones Idea, Historia de las siete islas de Canaria. Ode, Tarek, and David Oliva. La Laguna: Trujillo, La Palma: Cartas Diferentes Ediciones, Radhakrishnan, Rajagopalan.

Diasporic Meditations: Between Home and Location. Minneapolis: he U of Minnesota P, Secundino Delgado. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Editorial Benchomo, Cuaderno de las islas. Barcelona: Lumen, Barcelona: Ariel Rivadeneira, Tenerife: Baile del Sol, Teddy Bautista, Taller Canario. Key words: Aidan Higgins, representations of Ireland and Spain, autobiographical read- ings of the nation. Kildare in , has received scant critical attention both in Ireland and abroad.

Just like hundreds of other artists and would-be artists from all over Europe and America, Higgins discovered the south of Spain as an ideal refuge for destitute, individualistic, and liberal-minded artists and writers in the s, when Spain was still governed by the dictator General Franco.

Most of his successful debut novel Langrishe Go Down was written in the Andalusian village of Nerja, where he and his South-African wife spent some time in the early s Mayrhuber 7. His later works, comprising the travel book Images of Africa: Diary , ive novels, two travel story-collections, and an autobiographical trilogy, reissued as A Bestiary in , were generally less well-received.

Kildare, in He was educated at the Jesuit Clongowes Wood College. Following their decline in fortunes, the family sold their estate and moved to Co. In his twenties Higgins moved to London, where he worked in several factories. From to he toured Europe and South Africa with a marionette company. He lived in Spain, Germany, and Britain before returning to Ireland in the mids. His sickly parents, who have long drifted apart, live in great poverty in a dark, semi-derelict basement lat in Dun Laoghaire, following the same routine day by day.

Sickness and death loom large in this irst, Irish part of the novel, with the narrator telling us about the premature decease of 45 his year-old cousin and describing the last agonising days in the life of his mother, who falls into a coma after sufering a stroke.

Parts two to four of the novel are set in the Andalusian village of Nerja, where Dan and his wife Olivia stay from winter to autumn Too many dead. I only love Ireland at a distance. To associate what I was writing with greater Europe.

Mayrhuber His thoughts and dreams take him repeatedly back to his home country, which also serves as a frequent reference point for descriptions of the Spanish countryside. Overall, however, Higgins is far from presenting us with an exotic, Oriental- ised or romanticised image of Spain. But these symptoms of deplorable working and living conditions in Spain are only mentioned in passing and are not brought into relation with the po- litical regime in place.

Yet he is even more annoyed and disgusted by the lecherous 48 Spaniards crawling beast-like towards the scantily dressed female tourists on the beaches and masturbating. Perhaps their jackboots are killing them?

Part of the diiculty seems to have consisted in having to overcome his reluctance to construct a plot in order to please his editors. Obviously, the expatriates would like Spain to remain poor, backward, and isolated so they can resume their easy way of living and turn a blind eye to the troubles of the rest of the world. One cut of from Europe by the Pyrenees, the other by the Irish Sea.

Both on the outer fringes of Europe, both saved from two world wars by their long-nosed leaders; neither part of Europe. American military bases. For a truly peaceful sanctuary he needs to go further west. His auto-image of Ireland as a drab place with 52 an inhospitable climate and a stiling atmosphere, by contrast, clearly relects his personal alienation from his home country at the time of writing, i. Rather, he presented a Spain which ultimately evinces more parallels than contrasts with Ireland.

Day breaks reluctantly again, the low clouds dripping rain; high water and loods everywhere Is this the essential charm of the West, under the lying clouds? Its emptiness. Robert Welch. Beja, Morris. Donnelly, Neil. Neil Murphy. Champaign: Dalkey Archive, Dukes, Gerry. Garfitt, Roger. Douglas Dunn. Cheadle: Carcanet, Haverty, Anne. Healy, Dermot. Higgins, Aidan. Balcony of Europe. Kerrigan, Anthony. Liddy, James. Lubbers, Klaus. Wolfgang Zach and Heinz Kosok. Mahon, Derek. Irish Times, 6 March : Mayrhuber, Ursula.

An Analysis of His Works. University of Vienna, McGonigle, homas. Murphy, Neil. New York: Edwin Mellen, Aidan Higgins: he Fragility of Form. Owens, Coilin Don. Robert Hogan. Westport: Greenwood, Share, Bernard. Sweetman, Rosita. Wall, Eamonn. Contract labourers from Ireland and the Canary Islands were forced into a brutal work regime under Spanish mili- tary rule where any attempt to abscond was treated as desertion punishable by prison or execution.

Key words: Irish contract labour, Emigration studies, 19th century, relationship with the Canary Islands, capitalist expansion. Submitted to conditions similar to slavery, rebellion and protest by the Irish railroad workers led to their rejection by the authorities within months of their arrival. Less than ten years later, Irish immigrants were accused of conspiring with people of colour in the Escalera slave uprising. Within the broader question of the extent of resonances between Irish op- positional discourse and other non-European subaltern discourse, I will also explore the context in which Irish immigrants were implicated in the transnational move- ment against slavery and colonial rule in Cuba.

Richard Robert Madden, an Irish doctor, appointed by the British Colonial Oice as Superintendent of Liberated Africans to Cuba defended the positioning of the vessel as a solution for a temporary depot for freed Africans. Manned by a West Indian regiment of uniformed black soldiers bearing arms, the Romney was perceived by the colonial elite in Cuba as a reminder of the spectre of the Haitian revolution and a fearful symbol of abolitionism which served to inlame anti-British sentiment.

Fear of con- tagion and fear of abolitionists led to a deep mistrust of the free black population, comprising between ifteen and twenty percent of the overall population. In this climate of fear and hysteria, foreigners and especially British subjects were suspected of being abolitionists Murray, Odious.

During his time as a Special Magistrate in Jamaica in , he viewed the apprenticeship system as slavery which had changed in name only, so long as corporal punishment continued as a means of enforcement of compulsory labour.

Irish alas! Between and , some , slaves were imported and as sugar production increased during the s, over 17, enslaved Africans a year, were landed at Cuban ports Bergad. African-born slaves were in the majority in the sugar and cofee plantations of Western Cuba; where the black population was close to double that of whites.

Massive expansion of sugar production transformed Cuba into a black-majority island for the irst time in its history with , whites, , free people of colour 58 and , slaves. Black insurgency was becoming organised and anti-colonial sentiment in Cuba was gather- ing force. Consequently, Creole slave-holding elites who wanted political independence from Spain began to see slavery and the slave trade as an obstacle to that liberty.

Some of the earliest discursive formulations of Cuban national identity sought to contain racial anxieties in a troubled colonial context. Slaves would be replaced by white Catholic immigrants from the Canary Islands, Galicia and even Ireland. During the irst few months of the contract, two outbreaks of cholera caused fear and unrest on the line. Financial misdealing left contractors in debt to the company; they frequently led the line, leaving their workers with no rations or pay.

In April , Miguel Pedroso, a local landowner, made a complaint to the authorities accusing the trackmen, black and white, of robbing food from his property. He made special mention of the Irish who stole his pigs by crippling them before killing them with large sticks. When he looked for compensation for damage to his property by trackmen, the company by way of apology used a familiar trope which described the Irish laboring poor as 59 hardened trouble-makers, well known for their pilfering and drinking habits.

Report on Erasmus Denison, an overseer with an Irish crew, who led the railroad works without paying his workers. Si hay hombres disgustados con sus con- tratas que quieren volver a los Estados Unidos de donde salieron tan poco tiempo hay que hacer lo de su propias cuentas. Harsh military force in Cuba meant that protesters ended up in prison only to ind themselves returned to the railroad work gang in debt-bondage.

Alfred Kruger to el Departamento de camino de hierro. Divorced from the means of subsistence, the exercise of mobility generated subaltern power by reconiguring power relations in diferent categories of labour whether slave or free. His- torians are divided over the existence of such a vast conspiracy, and some believe the colonial authorities fabricated it as a pretext to justify a more brutal repression of the slave population see Paquette; Sarracino.

Most scholars, however, agree on the extent of the violent repression and state-brutality against slaves and free people of colour. Robert L. Control by the colonial authorities and the slave-holding elite was weakening. Many Creole whites and free people of colour escaped torture and death by leeing. Foreigners of British, Irish, German and North American origin implicated in the conspiracy were imprisoned. Of the twelve white British subjects who worked as machine op- erators and engineers on sugar plantations, four of those imprisoned were of Irish origin.

Hundreds of black British subjects, who after emancipation in Bahamas and Jamaica were kidnapped and enslaved again in Cuba, were all summarily deported Curry-Machado. Both were arrested in Cardenas, near Matanzas, accused of procuring ammunition to assist a slave insurrection.

During the Escalera trials, they were denied this claim, as residency laws held that any foreigner resident in Cuba for more than ive years came under Spanish jurisdiction; therefore, they were denied the right to protection or diplomatic assistance.

From the perspective of black insur- gents, they were viewed as British and therefore allies in the struggle to overthrow slavery. Kevin Kenny, while looking at nineteenth century labour protest, suggests that the Irish responded to unfavourable circumstances in two distinct ways, depending on the national conditions. Where hostility lessened the older forms of violent protest adapted from the Irish countryside, forms of protest changed to trade-union participation.

Deteriorating socio-economic conditions in early nineteenth-century Ire- land pushed increasing numbers of labourers and small holders to become involved in collective protest. One of the main objectives of the agrarian combinations was to protect tenants from rising rents and evictions. One such protest involved labourers on the Shannon Navigation Works demanding a pay rise.

On Monday 1 June , a few hundred protestors marching through the streets of Limerick swelled to three or four thousand, men, women and children who were protesting the rising prices of grain and potatoes. In Cuba, the coexistence of free with slave labour, as Cuban historian Julio le Riverand argues, served to harden working conditions for so-called free labourers Le Riverand. Irish and Canary islands wage-workers as well as con- victs and freed slaves involved in the construction of the Cuban railroad, were imprisoned for violations.

James E. London: Duke UP, Bergad, L. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Casanovas, Joan. New York: Peter Lang, Cunningham, John. Curry-Machado, Johnathan. Donnelly, James, S. Drescher, Seymour. Slave Labor. Stanley Engerman. Stanford: Stanford UP, Featherstone, David. Ferrer, Ada. Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation and Revolution Finch, Aisha K. New York University, Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. New York: Oxford UP, Le Riverand, Julio. Economic History of Cuba.

Maria Juana and Leon, Homero Cazabon. Havana: Book Institute, Linebaugh, Peter and Marcus Rediker. Lloyd, David. Irish Times: Temporalities of Modernity. Dublin: Field Day, Madden, Richard Robert. London: C. Gilpin, Madden, homas Moro, ed. London, Miller, Kerby. Ireland and Irish America.

Murray, David. London: Cambridge UP, Paquette, Robert L. Middletown: Wesleyan UP, La Habana: Consejo Nacional de Cultura, Rediker, Marcus. Sarracino, Rodolfo. Havana: Letras Cubanas, Senior, Carl. Way, Peter. New York: Cambridge UP, Sugar and Railroads: A Cuban History Among its contributors, however, was a writer who set himself apart from his contemporaries, and has always eluded clear-cut ideological ascriptions.

Among the contributors to he Na- tion, however, one particular igure stands out who represented an entirely diferent approach to nationalism. For James Fintan Lalor , Ireland was not an intellectual construct, a compound of cultural and historical traditions, but a material object to be reclaimed; while the Irish people was an entity he never felt the need to deine, except to vindicate the tenant population and exclude the landlord class.

Lalor was one of the most powerful writers of the Young Ireland genera- tion, and one of the very few whose press writings transcended the short life of the weekly journal to be republished as anthologies e. Although Lalor is best known as an agrarian activist, the prophet of the Land War of the s, his ideological sophistication and his strongly inspirational prose made him a tempting founding father for various other causes at the turn of the twentieth century.

As a thinker on the Famine, Lalor was not original either in his anxiety about the collapse of the small tenant class, his censure of the landlords, or his belief that any solution to the land question must include Irish independence. His approach to the nationalist cause was equally sweeping. As he wrote to John Mitchel in June My object is to repeal the Conquest—not any part or portion but the whole and entire conquest of seven hundred years—a thing much more easily done than to repeal the Union.

In the con- text of the Famine, this natural right became reinforced by the laws of survival. Wherefore I say, let them get a notice to quit at once; or we shall oust possession under the law of nature. His incorporation to the literary canon of the Land War and early-twentieth-century nationalism has further obscured the full extent of his intellectual originality when his writings were irst published.

Laois, on 10 March , the eldest of twelve children. By , every new acquaintance he made was struck by the contrast between his weak, deformed body, and his vigorous and original mind. Beyond the poetic nature of this story, however, Lalor was indeed pro- foundly original, even in his choice of political course. While the archetypal Young Irelander would have begun his career within the Repeal Association, and he him- self belonged to a family of committed Repealers, Lalor was intensely disgusted by the whole movement.

In his view, the Repeal Association was corrupt, inefectual, and completely mistaken as to objectives and methods qtd. As he explained to Peel: I was, myself, at one time, something more than a mere Repealer, in private feeling; but Mr. I have been driven into the conviction, [ When the Conservatives repealed the Corn Laws in , and thus abandoned agrarian protectionism, Lalor swerved course and again turned his attention towards the nationalists. Circumstances were particularly propitious; Young Ireland seceded from the Repeal Association in July , and a few months later announced the foundation of their own organisation, the Irish Confederation.

On 11 January , before the principles of this new organisation were oicially proclaimed, Lalor wrote to Charles Gavan Dufy in order to ofer his own recommendations. Success, Lalor urged, required the support of the rural masses, but in order to win them over to Repeal, Young Ireland had to ofer them some more tangible beneit than legislative independence; they had to become the champions of the right to land, as well as nationality.

In his irst public letter on 24 April, and two more which followed on 15 May and 5 June, Lalor described the operating causes of the Famine with masterful clarity, and concluded what modern researchers now take for granted: the Famine was not only a human tragedy; it was a watershed, the collapse of the existing social order and the emergence of a new one.

Mass deaths and emigration were draining the country of the small tenant population, and heralding the change from tillage farming to grazing. Ireland will become a pasture ground once again. It should not come as a surprise that the landlords were less than receptive to this proposal, but that was probably no more than Lalor expected.

He was far more disappointed in his new nationalist allies. After his irst contact with Charles Gavan Dufy, Lalor had received a warm welcome into the Irish Confederation, and had been led to expect support. However, most of the leadership were ex- 75 tremely reluctant to deviate from their old dogmas—Repeal above all else—and remained outwardly sympathetic, but in efect uncooperative. Between 24 June and 22 July , the inal month before the Young Ireland insurrection, Lalor published seven articles in the Felon.

Free from any further need to conciliate the landlords, Lalor alternated proposals for a new revolutionary organisation with detailed expositions of his ideas on independence and popular sovereignty. He began once again by establishing a clean break with the standard nationalist demand: he was emphatically not seeking to repeal the Union.

Success required an alliance of town and country; the nationalist demands of the urban population, and the agrarian demands of the rural population. To him, land tenure and nationality were not only complementary banners; they were one and the same cause. Lalor approached independence as a matter of national property rights. And he continued: In other, if not plainer, words, I hold and maintain that the entire soil of a country belongs of right to the entire people of that country True national independence meant efective, physical possession of the land itself.

In efect, Lalor enlarged the scope of social contract theory from power relations between individuals, to control over the land itself. I saw clearly that the re-conquest of our liberties would be incomplete and worthless without the re-conquest of our lands,—would not, necessarily, involve or produce that of our lands [ Unfortunately the Young Ireland elite were social conservatives who believed in the necessity of a national aristocracy, and dreamed of achieving independence without upsetting the social order.

Lalor passed over regrets, and again laid out his programme for his new readers, summarised in four points. And that the people, Lalor did not wish the Irish people to take over the land merely on account of the pressing necessity of the hour; he demanded it as a universal right.

And in order to make his case, he set out to prove that the only competing right, that of the landlord, was in efect null and void. Lalor dismissed this as an artiicial principle, formulated ex post facto in order to justify the British system of settlement. Common agreement yielded the fairest system of distribution, but even when this was the case, ultimate property rights remained in the hands of the community at large, who retained the right to revise and amend the system at any time.

Stability therefore depended on inding a settlement that the majority of the population would be interested to maintain. In Ireland, however, settlement had been founded on conquest, and thus it was that 8, individuals had been given full possession of the land against the rights of the remaining eight millions. But he acknowledged that wholesale civil disobedience was impracticable. Instead, he suggested concentrating resistance on one carefully selected law: he law you select for assailing must have four requisites:—irst, it must form no part of the moral code; second, it must be essential to government A general rent strike would bring landlordism to its knees, force Britain to come to the rescue, and lead to a full-blown revolution.

Irish Felon 8 July If this revolution were successful, it would be the end of both landlordism and British authority in Ireland. As early as , in a pamphlet entitled True Political Economy of Ireland, Conner had anticipated Lalor by denying the principle of private property in land and upholding the supreme value of the labouring classes as the foundation of the whole economic system 2.

But Lalor used all these elements to put forward a new and revolutionary approach to Irish nationalism. Lalor looked beyond both political theory and cultural revivalism to focus on the physical world. He argued his points merely on the grounds of natural law; any concrete settlement had no basis other than mutual consent, and could be subjected to revision at any point.

And his explanation, per- haps unintentionally, struck at the very root of ethnic nationalism: For no generation of living men can bind a generation that is yet unborn, or can sell or squander the rights of man; and each generation of men has but a life-interest in the world. But no generation continues the same for one hour together. Its identity is in perpetual lux. Irish Felon 8 July It may be no wonder that Lalor it so uneasily within the nationalist genera- tion so recently bewitched by homas Davis.

His writings refuse to engage with language, culture, religion, history—everything that was important in the romantic nationalist world, so strongly dominated by the educated youth of the cities. Who draws irst blood for Ireland? Who wins a wreath that will be green for ever? Yet even his claim to nationalist fame has been undermined by modern critics. David N. His aim was, quite simply, to overthrow the aristocracy. Buckley inds in turn that Lalor was neither a nationalist, an anarchist, a socialist, nor a conservative; he inally settles on deining him as a bourgeois radi- cal of the Paine school His only concrete suggestion, calling for a federal union between Ireland and Britain Irish Felon 1 July , was merely a nod to contemporary debates, and lost sight of the fact, as Arthur Griith pointed out, that a third overruling power was still required Fogarty viii.

But lack of a proper post- independence master plan was not uncommon when revolution had to be disposed of irst; the Fenians are a prime example of this. If Lalor refused to engage with the concerns of cultural nationalism, this does not negate his belief in the existence of an Irish nation; it merely reveals a diferent set of priorities in the face of the Famine, and a closer identiication with the classical republican tradition than the volksgeist rhetoric of his own age.

Lalor remained an obscure igure after the s, mostly remembered in Fenian circles for his role in the conspiracy, which was once claimed as the model for the IRB itself Irishman 3 November Although the Fenian newspaper the Irish People made repeated calls to peasant proprietorship, it left the details undeined and never referred to Lalor as an inspiration. Whereas Lalor turned his back very emphatically on the British parliament, and unlike Parnell he did not regard the land question as a bargaining counter in the ight for self-government, but treated both causes as integral to each other.

For the nationalists of the twentieth century, Lalor was mainly a prophet of republicanism, an inspir- ing writer of revolutionary harangues. Ironically, the rural Ireland that Lalor was struggling so desperately not only to preserve, but to make hegemonic in , proceeded to be recreated, idealised and enshrined in the post-independence imagination. London: Verso, Buckley, David N. James Fintan Lalor: Radical. Cork: Cork UP, Connolly, James.

Labour in Irish History. New York: he Donnelly, Fogarty, Lilian. Dublin: he Talbot, Marlowe, Nathaniel ed. James Fintan Lalor: Collected Writings. Dublin: Maunsel, Mitchel, John. Glasgow: R. Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Dublin: he Shamrock Library, James Fintan Lalor. John T. Dublin: Golden Publications, Pearse, Patrick. Collected Works of Padraic H. Pearse: Political Writings and Speeches. Dublin: he Phoenix. Classics of Irish History.

Dublin: U College Dublin Press, Often, the intellectual is asked to choose between the blandishments of a synthetic whole and the uncertainties of a discontinuous, fraught contest between the powerful and the powerless. Moody and R. Edwards as well as their later heir, Roy Foster, with this intellectual genealogy pitted in explicit opposition to the likes of Daniel Cork- ery and later Richard Kearney or the abovementioned Seamus Deane, all of whom broadly defend an anti-colonial tradition and, to difering degrees, a republican or nationalist ideology.

Such an assessment of the ideological parameters of the editor of he Bell is largely canonical. However, for much that the Corkman is consistently proposed as a key intellectual inluence in 20th century Ireland, his work is much neglected, hence the frequent tendency in critics to casually invoke what is, in truth, a much bowdlerised version of a very complex igure.

In this paper I propose, by examining a key chapter of his autobiography, Vive Moi! In that moment life became one with the emotion of Ireland. It was a supreme experience to know that you may not only admire your fellow men, or respect them, or even like them, but that you can love them so much that they have no faults, no weaknesses, so that you will never distrust them even for a second [ But it must surely have helped him to know that he was dying for something he believed in as fervently as we believed in Ireland then.

I wish to God I could believe in anything as fervently now. In fact we got of lightly by comparison with later anti-imperialists like the Cypriots, Algerians and Africans. What would our lot have been supposing we had been a Mediterranean island ighting France after Europe had become thoroughly inured to the savage techniques of total war? It is true that ighters often had to live under conditions of almost unbearable strain; but for most of the people the Troubled Times [ In point of time our people did not have to sufer the full voltage of British military oppression for much more than the one year and a half that lay between the spring of and the truce of I remember the happy holiday Eileen and I spent in Cape Clear Island even as late as the summer of He does, however, look for balance.

He records the so-called burning of Cork as follows: hat night military, Auxiliaries and Tans, infuriated by an earlier IRA attack, de- cided to inlict their own private reprisal. It all made a blaze as comparatively wicked, destructive and terrifying as a bad blitz attack on [ He does not, however, redress this situation, or correct it, by the presentation of the objective reality that is deinitive.

What we ind is a simultaneous attachment and detachment. Even still, after forty years have blunted my worst memories of them, I still frequently awake sweating from a nightmare that has whirled me back among them again. Only by receiving the text in all its complexity and with the critical awareness of change [ And, crucially, such a move is undertaken in clear sympathy with the history of anti-colonialism.

Far more than in his Bell polemics, it is in Vive Moi! Said writes that: A reader is in a place, in a school or university, in a work place, or in a speciic country at a particular time, situation, and so forth.

But these are not passive frameworks. In the process of widening the humanistic horizon, its achievements of insight and understanding, the framework must be actively understood, constructed and interpreted. Said is not just an intellectual per se but also a scholar of literature.

As Said indicates: Art is not simply there: it exists intensely in a state of unreconciled opposition to the depredations of daily life, the uncontrollable mystery on the bestial loor. One can call this heightened status for art the result of performance, of protracted elaboration as in the structures of a great novel or poem , of ingenious execution and insight: I myself cannot do without the category of the aesthetic as, in the inal analysis, providing resistance not only to my own eforts to understand and clarify and elucidate as reader, but also as escaping the levelling pressures of eve- ryday experience from which, however, art paradoxically derives.

Humanism 63 Literature is thus fundamentally important. He is of course a prominent writer of iction as well as a well-known public intellectual. In Vive Moi! He seems to seek to introduce to canonical readings of who or what he is an unclassiiable literary note of discord that serves to upset facile classiications and propose new parameters of interpretation, new possibilities of identity in an exchange, a dialogue, that can be interpreted, in line with the example proposed by Said, as fundamentally democratic.

Rather he seems particularly keen to emphasise the fact, his presumably deliberate virtual elision of his Bell years perhaps intended as a signpost in this direction. First, he recalls the tense atmosphere through which he sought to live a relatively ordinary life, recording that to disobey nightly curfews very likely meant dangerous encounters with the colonial troops. One evening, after leaving his girl home, he was rushing on his way with a few minutes before curfew left when: A Lancia truck, wire-netted against bombs, loaded with Tans, drew up behind me; three of them jumped out, revolvers drawn, and grabbed me.

I threw out my chest, in imitation of those days, and sang it for all my lungs were worth: Send him victorious, Happy and glorious, Long to reign over us, God save the King. He seems to be clearly drawing our attention to the manner in which events such as these can be and are selected by the teller with a view to actively shaping the framework of inter- pretation, to producing meaning, to provoking a reaction in the reader or listener, whether laughter or grim silence rather than simply communicating a self-evident, neutral reality.

And, we are invited to conclude, never did. But when this entity becomes empowered and the holist nation ideal becomes increasingly totalised, with the potential for totalitarian manifestations that are hostile to his republican ideas, then he becomes disloyal. His position is to dissent.

Here the latter of the two journals is taken to represent, in a worryingly totalising conla- tion, a single literary, mytho-poetic, metaphysical and post-colonial tradition. Its scholarly touchstones were the philosophical and especially hermeneutical tradition of Richard Kearney and to a lesser extent the literary, and broadly postcolonial, criticism of Deane. Dublin: Irish Academic, Deane, Seamus.

Claire Carroll and Patricia King. Enright, Anne, ed. London: Granta, Fanning, Bryan. Dublin: Irish Aca- demic, Vive Moi! London: Sinclair-Stevenson, Said, Edward W. New York: Columbia UP, London: Penguin, In this respect, not only critical theory but also a considerable number of literary works have attempted to give voice, respond and, ultimately, challenge the stereotypical imagery associated with the country in the heyday of the Victorian era and afterwards.

Key words: Race, dystopia, postcolonialism, he Green Gene, satire. In the postcolonial framework in which the country has been located by critics from Edward Said to Luke Gibbons Transfor- mations; Gaelic , Ireland has been entrapped in the ambivalences that underlie its own peculiar characteristics as a country that has undergone a severe though often veiled colonisation.

Yeats or George Bernard Shaw, among others, denounced, usually in a satirical way, the unfair treatment received by the country and its de iure colonial condition. In this like vein, the list of writings that revolve around this question is long and some of them would arise as good and appropriate exponents of what might be labelled as anti-colonial literature. It goes without saying that Ireland has been extraordinarily proliic in the production of a type of literature that sought to, through the sharp use of irony and satire, uncover the evils of colonialism.

Humayan, who arrives in Britain to investigate the genetic reasons that might have caused the outburst of green-skinned people and the pos- sibilities that this population might eventually outnumber the white, mainstream, Anglo-Saxon citizens. In London, Humayan starts working for the so-called Race Relations Board RRB , an institution that claims to harmonise all the racial sen- sibilities that exist in the country and which apparently struggles to meet with all their necessities in the most equalitarian way possible.

However, the scientist soon discovers that the living conditions of the green people do not exactly respond to the idealistic scenario designed by the members of the RRB. It is precisely the marginalised position of the greens what enables Dick- inson to enhance the theoretical postulates that deined the Irish, and extensively the Celtic population, as a distinct, and therefore, a minority race.

Perhaps echoing the anthropological treatises that legitimated the belief that all those peoples who departed from the oicially sanctioned and accepted races were abnormal or deicient creatures, the green characters in the novel are regarded as genetic deviations. It was an irrelevance that the majority of Celts, and no Saxons, had green skins.

In his reading of Orientalism, John McLeod points out that colonialism drew on ive main concepts that should project a completely distorted and partial image of the Orient as a way to justify the atrocities perpetrated in these territories. McLeod refers to backwardness, strangeness, femininity, race and gender as the key assumptions 3 In this respect, it is interesting to note what Seamus Taylor suggests about this issue.

In this respect, women in the colonised lands were usually characterised as naturally-born sexual creatures, source of endless pleasures and always ready to comply with the desires of the coloniser. Oh no. I tell you often I have laughed at their ignorances, and they believe the green ladies have special talents, you know?

Paradoxically enough, Humayan, himself a member of an ethnic minority, believes that the inferior racial condition of the green women allow him to have free and unrestricted sexual access. Following with the re-examination of these stereotypes, Dickinson also retakes a question that was signiicantly empowered by the imperial ideologists and which defended the metropolitan supremacy in terms of progress as opposed to the native backwardness.

As was stated above, all that escaped from these criteria was considered pernicious and therefore prone to be cleansed and civilised. If we concentrate on the context of the Anglo-Irish relationships, this opposition was made clear from the very moment in which Ireland was deined simply as a rural country anchored to a meaningless folkloric past, with no capacity to partake of the modernising impulse of its British neighbours and thus incapable of turning into a developed country. He speaks as if he were addressing children —a shade too loudly and enunciating excessively.

We are here—here—in this place—you understand? It also points to the necessity of the imperial nation to substitute or erase these local or native expressions to impose their own, much in the line of what Friel describes with the Anglicisation of Irish place-names in his play. Whenever stereotyping is dealt with, drinking and violence must be neces- sarily touched upon as they have been historically conjoined with the personality and psychological proile of the Irish people.

In his thought-provoking study Racism in the Irish Experience , Steven Gardner argues that the Irish immigrant in Victorian Britain was discriminated in a three-fold way: religion, class and race. It so happens that the Saxon culture covers a wider range of artistic endeavour than the Celtic culture. In the novel, Anglo-Saxon citizens share the idea that massive drinking is part of the Irish idiosyncrasy, a fact that explains why they behave in the way they do and also why they are displaced and dislocated in the British social spectrum.

As in many colonialist discourses, this kind of simplistic generalisations led to distortion and to present an image of the native populations that did not correspond with their own reality. From the beginning of the novel, Dickinson stresses the clear divisions that exist in the country and explores the causes and 7 Homi K. Dystopian literature aimed at denouncing the nightmarish consequences that this kind of re- gimes could bring about and how the social well-being could be demolished if any of these leaders could take over power.

Dickinson draws our attention to the patent compartmentalisation of the green population in both the professional and personal realms, which pushes them into a ghettoisised labyrinth from which it is diicult to escape. It was argued above that the distortion of truth and the forgery of history were two fundamental strategies for the indoctrination of the citizenship and the creation of brainwashed, robotic beings with no capacity for dissent or criticism.

A totalitarian state is in efect a theocracy, and its ruling caste, in order to keep its position, had to be thought of as infallible Celtic history in the novel is not only repeatedly mocked for being merely a succession of tales and legends, it is also object of subliminal attempts to make it disappear in favour of the more canonical and respect-worthy British history. One of the bases of a totalitarian state is to maintain the population under strict vigilance so that any outburst of rebellion or resistance can be instantly sufocated and eliminated.

As a matter of fact, the performance of racial groups has always been severely scrutinised by the authorities, being systematically targeted as the prime suspects for any riot within the community. In spite of the apparent social stability the authorities seek to transmit, the world Dickinson creates in the novel is prevail- ingly dominated by curfews and warnings, by police oicers watching over every street and by dubious arresting procedures in which the habeas corpus rights of green citizens are rarely taken into consideration.

He is in no way subject of history any more. It is very paradoxical to read how the incitement to racial hatred is severely penalized by the police forces when strict zoning laws and apartheid mechanisms are continuously implemented.

Racial diference is clearly penalized, as Humayan sufers in his peaceful walks around London, although the authorities want to disguise this policy behind a veil of faked tolerance and respect for the minorities. Well, the road here is a Zone border.

Zass, only the English bishops have smuggled them awe and brocht in some bonny Saxon bairn. Generation after generation it has happened, so in what manner can her present Majesty be callit wull-brred? His presentation of these results conirm that the green population might eventually outnumber the Saxon, provoking thus an overturn of the racial hierarchy and creating a situation that could also be analysed in terms unknown so far.

Nonetheless, what seems to be an open gate to a better understanding of the racial dynamics ends up in a clearly dystopian inale in which Humayan has to leave the country almost as a fugitive, heading for a secret destination as a hideout. To conclude, the contention of this paper has been to demonstrate that all process that involve any kind of oppression or exclusion can eventually result in the emergence of a dystopian society in the line of what Zamyatin, Orwell, Huxley or Bradbury depicted in their works.

Padmini Mongia. London: Arnold, Brannigan, John. Race in Modern Irish Literature and Culture. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, Carroll, Clare. Chakrabarty, Dipesh. Dickinson, Peter. London: Hodder and Stoughton, Friel, Brian. London: Faber and Faber, Garner, Steven. Racism in the Irish Experience.

Dublin: Pluto, Gibbons, Luke. Galway: Arlen House, Hickman, Mary J. How the Irish Became White. London: Routledge, Kumar, Krishan. Utopia and Anti-Utopia in Modern Times. Oxford: Blackwell, Lennon, Joseph. Clare Carroll and Patricia King. Dublin: Lilliput, Loomba, Ania. Mac Laughlin, Jim.

Colin Graham and Richard Kirland. London: Macmillan, MacLeod, John. Beginning Postcolonialism. Manchester: Manchester UP, Memmi, Albert. New York: he Orion, Parry, Benita. Paz, D. Nationalism, Colonialism, and Literature: Yeats and Decolonization. Derry: Field Day, Swift, Roger and Sheridan Gilley, eds. London: Pinter, Taylor, Seamus. London: he Polytechnic of North London P, In this process, the colonizing and alienating inluence of Britain has been replaced by the United States as the dominant Other.

Both plays focus on the intercultural representation of Ireland and the Irish in Hollywood movies. Both plays are intermedial or metadramas in the sense that they take ilm productions as their subject matter. Answers to the both ontological and existential question of what is real have become increasingly opaque, however. In Postmodernism; or he Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism , his seminal study of the postmodern era, Fredric Jameson argues that the paramount inluence of media, electronic and otherwise, cause a collapse of the distinction between high culture and popular art forms as well as an erosion of the depth dimension of reality see Jameson, Postmodernism 17, 2.

It is replaced by an ensemble of self-fragments marked by emotional numbness see Jameson, Postmodernism 15, Despite such pessimism, art and, notably, drama, have not lost their critical impulse. While it is impossible to evade the inluences of globalization and commodiication, contemporary drama, and speciically Irish drama, pit an existential world of highly individual human sufering, humor, and joy against them. Contemporary drama thus projects liminal identities, mediating between anthropological necessities on the one hand and societies built on commodiication on the other.

Both plays also share a concern with the representation of Ireland on screen. Lanters All of the characters in he Cripple of Inishmaan are branded by their tics and antics as near-caricatures. In their own individual ways, these com- pulsive characters are psychologically as crippled as Billy is physically. McDonagh exempliies the problem of the semiotic relationship between realities and their representations—also at the heart of the debate over movies about Ireland made by Hollywood—by the diiculty of inding American candy in an Irish sweets shop, for example.

By his aunt, candy lover Bartley has been sent American candy from Bos- ton, Massachusetts. Although he looks as hard as he can, disappointed Bartley sees neither Mintios nor Yalla-mallows. Eileen demonstrates an Irish sense of the real which seems impervious to both the lure of exotic America and the taste of the imaginary. Much later in the play it transpires that there is more than meets the eye even to the seemingly adamantine empirical realities on Inishmaan. It turns out that there were Yalla-mallows in the shop after all, that Ireland did provide the signiied to the American signiier.

But, as Eileen is as compulsively addicted to sweets as Bartley, she ate them all McDonagh In both cases the simulacrum camoulages existential need. What Billy sufers from most is the coexistence of several versions of his life history whose veracity remains as undecidable as his self undeined. Bobby hits everybody and everything that antagonizes him mercilessly and compulsively, including Billy. Some tics may be expressions of endearment camoulaged by their seeming absurdity. When all these constructs are being deconstructed, only a sense of home, love, and death seems to resist such relativization.

In this respect a postcolonial paradigm, based on authentic ethnic identities, and a postmodern paradigm, based on trans- national constructed identities, seem to vie with each other. Contrary to Lonergan one might think that brands cannot lose their authenticity because they have none in the irst place and that the conceptual aura amounts to a sell-out of critical theory. At least in he Cripple of Inishmaan McDonagh seems to suggest that a basic humanity, comprising a sense of home, friendship, love, and death, cannot be totally absorbed by the world of simulacral commodiication.

Heidelberg, Winter: Peter Brooker. London: Longman, Chambers, Lilian and Eamonn Jordan, eds. Dublin: Carysfort P, Columbus: he Ohio State UP, Huber, Werner. Margarete Rubik and Elke Mettinger-Schartmann. Trier: WVT, Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism; or, he Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism.

Durham: Duke UP, Fredric Jameson and Masao Miyoshi. Jones, Marie. Stones in His Pockets and a Night in November. London: Nick Hern, Keating, Sara. Lilian Chambers and Eamonn Jordan. Dublin: Carysfort, Dublin: Carysfort , Lacan, Jacques. David Lodge. Bloomington: Indiana UP, Lenz, Peter. Margarete Rubik and Elke Mettinger- Schartmann.

Lonergan, Patrick. Richard Rankin Russel. MacHale, Des. Belfast: Appletree, Not only does the Association mediates in the relationship between puppeteers and national and international spectators and institutions, but it also creates contacts and cooperation with craftsmen, puppeteers and artists from other countries promoting the cultural and professional exchange between Sicilian traditional artists and foreigners operating in the same field.

In fact, during the annual Festival di Morgana, the Association often invites companies from abroad, which perform or hold workshops in Palermo, and it has also promoted the production of innovative performances mixing traditional practices ex. Chinese Opera and Sicilian Opera dei pupi , or various forms of art contemporary dance, paintings and music : the result was the creation of artistic works which plays with the Opera dei pupi traditional codes which gave Sicilian artists the possibility to become more aware about their activity and to expand the range of their experience in the puppet field.

Finally, this exchange has helped the development of a more general comparative study of traditional theatrical practices. The "Battuglia di Pastellessa" are ornamental wagons that are prepared to celebrate the religious feast of Saint Anthony, the Abbot, in January following a tradition that started years ago in Macerata Campania.

Membership to the Association is free, without any kind of discrimination with regard to race, citizenship, sex or religious belief. Other Associations, Committees, Institutions and Foundations, sharinq the same purposes of the Association, can apply for membership to the Association. During such event the Association coordinates about 1. During the previous days concerts, tastings and religious liturgies warm up the atmosphere.

The feast consists in: firing the "Cippo di Sant'Antuono" Saint Anthony's piece of wood , parade of the ornamental wagons of the "Battuglia di Pastellessa", fireworks and a raffle. The band exhibition of the "bottari" is in the morning when they are carried on 16 meter-long wagons, with their instruments consisting of vats, barrels and sickles, realized by local artisans, around the town. After the Mass fireworks are exploded as symbol of the purification and the struggle against the evil spirit.

Figurative fireworks representing a woman, a pig, a donkey, enrich the symbolism and represent the protective force from the snares of the world. Traditional games as tug of war, the sack race and the raffle, when all donations collected during the procession are auctioned, mark the closure of the festivities. The event is organized by the Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania, the Province of Caserta, with the Campania Region, and the participation of the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale".

Dissemination Project Sant'Antuono Web 2. The Association's Web community puts together more than 1. The event was organized by the Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania. The event was organized by Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania.

The event was co-organized by the "Comitato Carnevale di Montemarano" and the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale ICHNet " with the sponsorship of the "Istituto Centrale per la Demoetnoantropologia" of the Italian Ministry of Culture. Establishment of the Study Centre "Historia Loci" in order to fulfil safeguarding activities for the intangible cultural heritage of Macerata Campania through research, studies, and events.

Young people are invited to join in the practice of playing the various typical musical instruments used while elder people participate in the transmission of techniques and patterns of playing and singing. The about 1. In order to fulfil the safeguarding activities for the intangible cultural heritage of Macerata Campania, the Association collaborates with other Associations, Committees, Institutions and Foundations, of the territory such as the "Associazione Radici" of Marcianise, the "Comitato Carnevale di Montemarano" of Montemarano, the Province of Caserta, the Municipality of Macerata Campania.

In order to strenghthen the knowledge of its local tradition and specific percussion techniques, it also collaborates with organizations from other parts of Italy including the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale ICHNet - Intangible Cultural Heritage Network " and the "Istituto Centrale per la Demoetnoantropologia" of the Italian Ministry of Culture.

The Union helps to learn and form the public opinion about carpet-making art, legal rug products, and it also helps the stimulating of the raising of the creative work mastery of the physical persons, popularization of quality and special signs of our national culture and handicrafts to determine various examples of carpets and also helps theirs popularization and demonstation in Azerbaijan and the world. The NGO collaborates with local and international organizations of carpet-making art, including museums and also with legal and physical persons, as well as the state agencies.

The Unity organizes different trainings and workshops, round tables and meetings, exhibitions, charitable fundraising, conferences, other cultural and other mass measures; dissiminates information about purposes and activities, publishes print materials.

For preservation of a variety of the Azerbaijan carpet, weaver's communities together with the Association «The World of carpet» and Azerbaijani Carpetmakers' Union collect information about local features of carpets, popularisation of products of local weavers through exhibitions-sales, organising trainings.

So, in August , in Baku, the Azerbaijani Carpetmakers' Union uniting all carpet communities of the country and the Association «World of Carpet» organised the round table which was devoted to problems of activization of manufacture of pileless carpets in Azerbaijan.

The Carpetmakers' Union organises regular trainings in technique of pileless carpets at the the Museum of the Azerbaijan carpet. Communities of carpet weavers demonstrate the works at various exhibitions. So, in the national competition-festival of carpets in various zones of the country was organised.

In , works of national weavers were shown in one of the Days of the Azerbaijan culture in Basel. Besides, the following national laws were adopted: in the Law on import-export of cultural objects, in - the Law about folklore, in - ratification of the Convention of UNESCO on Protection of intangible Cultural heritage.

In , , and , three international symposiums of the Azerbaijan carpet were organised in Azerbaijan. In 4th symposium devoted to the anniversary of Ljatif Kerimov took place in UNESCO headquarters in Paris where the exhibition of artists works also was organised. Among large publications of carpet protection for last decade: Roya Tagieva «The Azerbaijan carpet» , presentation of which has taken place in in Louvre Museum, Azadi-Kerimov-Tsollinger «The Azerbaijan Caucasian carpets» , and the two-volume book «The Azerbaijan carpet» , devoted to L.

Kerimov and Materials of 4th symposium about the Azerbaijan carpet. Many last projects have been connected with efforts on revival of carpet art. In 14th of September, has been spent the round table and a master class "Not varying values of varying time" with the assistance of carpet — wavers, artists on carpets, collectors and businessmen, and also fans of carpet art.

It has been shown a collection of clothes with use of carpet patterns of young designer Minary Kulieva, works of the master on embroidery art with use of a carpet thread of Shahla Askerova, etc. On 17th of November, , on the day of birth of the great artist on carpets, masters, scientific Ljatif Kerimov has been opened the exhibition of professionals and masters is national-applied art "The art Bridge, the leader from the past in the future".

On 18th of May, has opened the exhibition of tapestries "Tapestries: yesterday and today", where have exposed the works of masters of Non-governmental organisation. On 10th of May, has been opened the exhibition of the Union's member Mr. In March, has been opened the exhibition of masters on national-applied art was devoted to a holiday of Novruz.

Since the Carpetmakers' Union has started to carry on negotiations with similar international communities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, in Russian Federations and in Islamic Republic of Iran. Result of negotiations was the opening of an exhibition of masters of people-applied art of Uzbekistan which has been opened together with "Fund-Forum of culture and art of Uzbekistan", Associations of Antiquaries of Uzbekistan "Meros" which will proceed in the autumn opening of an exhibition of the Azerbaijan masters in Tashkent, also opening of an exhibition of carpets on the basis of pictures of the National artist of Azerbaijan and Russia Tahir Salahov.

In this way the Union supports to enrich cultural variety, protect non-material cultural heritage especially among young generation. It carries out monitorings for the learning cause and effect in the material and technical direction, prepare the activity program in the direction of restoration of the technologies defining on the basis of getting results of the sensible and forgotten kinds of the carpet-making art.

In in Guba, Khachmaz, Gusar, Shabran, Siyazan the Union carried out the survey about modern situation of the carpet-making art, in in the result of analysis of the surveys compile the plan of monitoring and in Guba unity have been organized the exhibition from the works of the carpet-makers and masters of applied art. In there were surveys about carpet-making art in the west zone of Azerbaijan.

The same problem is connect with various kinds of art embroideries. It is about the propaganda the ancient kinds and names of embroideries art among the young generation. Once in a month the Union organize the meetings with craftsmans in the various handicrafts of people-applied art and investigate their problems.

Carrying out the work among different adults , the Union learns their interests to various kinds of applied art and organize different groups. Educational activities: At the museum but also in schools. We are holding courses for youths and adults who want to learn, and also have two university courses at the museum together with the Gotland University.

Festival: Since , every year we have had a storytelling festival, which is local, national and international. At the festival we host a Nordic youth camp for the next generation of storytellers. We are trying to highlight different kind of storytelling traditions, we highlight the romany tradition.

This has been done by; road signs, maps, story cabinets at the actual place the cabinets consist of a story that the visitor can read in Swedish, English or German, a painting which is connected to the story , an app you can listen to the story in your phone instead of reading if you like geocaching, performances, activities and excursions. Every summer we do a summer program in The Land of Legends, with performances open for the public. Performing arts: Storytelling is a performing art, we do plenty storytelling from stages, at theathers and festivals.

Book publishing: Several books have been published with the old tales but also with the new stories that we have collected today. Minority groups — we have highlighted storytelling traditions belonging to groups that unfortunately have been overlooked in history, for example Romany and Sami.

Together we have done many projects, and helped them at several places to highlight their legends and stories connected to places where they operate. NGO for traditional handicraft — connected to the making of handicraft are several stories and tales. We work together with the traditional handicraft association to bring forward these stories. We co-operate around storytelling, doing performances at the museums.

Main objectives of the Organization: 1. Rediscovery and promotion of the intellectual and traditional knowledge of the Igbos relating to its traditional medical knowledge and practices; 2. Protection of the masquerade and oracular prophetic practices of the Igbos, Wawa people as they extend in Nigeria, Ghana, Cote d'lvoire and Senegal; 3.

Defense and sustenance of the natural and customary practices of the indigenous African people under the context of foreign religion and globalization which exterminate the population's social and economic existence; 4. Sensitization of the intellectual class in Africa on the issues that border on African intellectual property and folklore; 5. Research and publications on African intellectual and folklore history and issues by collating end reports of conferences and workshops.

Poverty reduction programs to ensure environmental and economic sustainability for the Wawas in 19boland spread through the four West African states; 7. Designing relevant programs that will impact positively and contextualize the millennium development goals in the lives and customs of the Wawas in 19boland, especially those in tension soaked Niger delta of Nigeria.

Poverty reduction programs to ensure environmental and economic sustainability for the Wawas in Igboland spread through the four West African states; 7. Designing relevant programs that will impact positively and contextualize the millennium development goals in the lives and customs of the Wawas in Igboland, especially those in tension soaked Niger delta of Nigeria. Actividades: 1. We have embarked upon documentation and profiling of the intellectual properties and folklore of the Wawa people of West Africa with a view to seeking legislative and copyright protection of these activities, previously undocumented; 2.

Publication of well researched articles and books on Wawa indigenous people that will itemize the various cultural properties and rights of the people to sensitize the world and national governments on the areas which are threatened with distinction. Organizing workshops and attending global fora of world indigenous peoples to present the perceived areas of injustice and marginalization which have threatened them with extinction and permanent dislocation in the geography of their present locations in West Africa.

Collaboration with all other individuals and organizations which promote and defend the intellectual property and folklore of indigenous people worldwide with a view to exchanging information and visits from other parts of the world; 5. Making representation to governments in the four West African countries to recognize and adopt best practices and conventions on world indigenous intellectual rights and properties.

Policy advocacy on curriculum change, legal reform and cultural promotion of the intellectual property of the Wawas and Igbos in West Africa. Actividades: Since its founding in , CTMD has produced over major presentations including concerts, festivals, tours, CD and fim series, and lectures. Materials gathered by CTMD staff, folklorists, ethnomusicologists and community cultural sepcialists are the basis for subsequent articistic presentations and educational programming.

The collection includes audio and video recordings, photographic documentation and related ephemera on CTMD's presentations and programs. A monthly eNewsletter provides news, events and informatin about NY's traditional music and dance scene.

While CCIs are deeply grassroots and NY-based, they produce ripples that can extend nationally and even internationally. In the s, CTMD's project to document and present Jewish klezmer music helped spark a workd-wide revival. In the s, CTMD helped form the renowned all-women's ensemble Cherish the Ladies which ispired huge interest amongs women across North America ane even Ireland in performing Irish music previsously a male-dominated activity. Il met sur pied des expositions en lien avec ses collections.

La mission du Centre touche les volets de la recherche, de la conservation et de la formation, de la diffusion et de la mise en valeur du patrimoine vivant. However, from it increased her activities to encompass the conservation of both movable, immovable and intangible heritage assets. CHDA is mandated to Organize, co-ordinate and develop viable projects and activities for heritage and museum development in Africa, such as the post-graduate diploma course in the care and management of heritage and museum collections in sub-Saharan Africa, in collaboration with the University of Nairobi and University College London, and the Africa program.

In many programs, CHDA invites expert resource persons and also teaching assistants, who use the opportunity to understudy the expert trainer on their way to becoming expert trainers in their own right. These professionals, many of who went on and acquired further qualifications, became part of the CHDA network of heritage professionals, a pool of experts that CHDA draws on for its professional training needs, as resource persons, facilitators and program coordinators in case of need.

It is important to note that the network has experts in most of the different aspects of heritage management, including tangible, intangible, movable and immovable heritage. They also have loyalty and commitment to CHDA, having come through it in the development of their professional careers. A few of the programs CHDA has undertaken in the past and which had a direct bearing on intangible heritage management included: 1.

Endangered Heritage Assets Program EHAP This program was undertaken by CHDA in successfully sought to identify, document and disseminate the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the Mijikenda people of the Kenyan coast, especially those that are threatened with extinction. The three-year en-compass project The project began in October and is on-going. It brought together participants from China, England, Guyana, and Kenya with the remit for Anglophone Africa The program looked at issues related to the dangers and challenges faced in the protection of intangible and tangible cultural heritage in all participating countries.

The program activities also included a workshop to scope and audit key tangible and intangible heritage resources, including cultural expressions, products and services in each partner country. These in-country workshops provided a focus and momentum for long-term on-going scoping and auditing activities post training. However, the information and material gathered through the scoping exercise was also fed onto a database, used to create the online and published catalogues- this process is still on-going.

The project also intends to create an inventory of cultural heritage resources Tangible and Intangible , including those at risk in the short-term from the scoping exercise undertaken in each of the three partner countries. The catalogue of cultural heritage assets both tangible and intangible collected will be researched and used to design and develop a travelling exhibition that will go around all the participating countries.

This course had a whole unit dedicated to "Indigenous knowledge systems and community involvement", which is basically training in intangible heritage of communities. Africa Courses CHDA hosted the 3-month Africa courses for , , , , and One of the issues Africa program addressed was the issue of insufficient human resources and capacity for management, conservation, and maintenance of immovable heritage properties on the continent, using traditional methods and materials.

This means that traditional methods, knowledge and skills, which are basically intangible heritage assets, were being mainstreamed in the program, in a participatory approach involving local communities in the conservation planning and management processes.

For example, the field projects aimed to establish self-confidence within the local custodians and to enhance their recognition as efficient professionals. The project also worked to integrate traditional techniques in conservation of monuments resulting not only in monuments that are responsive to local environments, but also to the sustenance and promotion of traditional skills - the intangible heritage within the local communities.

The aims of the course was to produce professionals who can record Intangible Heritage appropriately and to enable trainees effectively apply methodologies, standards, and equipment for recording Intangible Heritage. The main course objective was to enable participants to record Intangible Heritage using digital and video cameras in line with laid down standards and procedures as provided in the course. For this matter, community participation has always been incorporated into the programs CHDA offers its participants - either by making it part of the teaching learning content or by inviting community members as participants in training programs to exchange issues with professionals, learn from and teach them and to create networks for future exchange.

In the last training that CHDA held in Zimbabwe on Risk Preparedness for Heritage properties between 6th and 18th May for example, two community members were invited as participants to help build an understanding among professionals on the traditional approaches to risk management of the Great Zimbabwe, as well as to help us understand the community needs and expectations from the professionals in their professional work of management and conservation.

The roots of the CSC lie in an extensive research programme Katholieke Universtiteit Leuven on the history and the current situation of traditional games in Flanders the Dutch speaking part of Belgium , started by prof. R Renson in The unexpected richness and variety of traditional games lead to the foundation of the CSC in order to promote this endangered sporting heritage and to get people acquainted again with the traditional games.

The mission of the CSC states that the CSC must be a centre of expertise in safeguarding the intangible heritage of the traditional and modern movement culture in vivo and in situ via identification, documentation, research, protection, handing down, revitalizing … on a national and international level. Gradually the CSC broadened its scope to a European and even a worldwide scale.

On a European level the CSC carried out a lot of demonstrations of traditional games abroad and invited traditional games practitioners from many countries to Belgium for demonstrations and exchanges. The activities worldwide concern mainly research, publications, the gathering of documentation and exchange of information. From onwards, the CSC committed itself, together with Sportmuseum Vlaanderen Sports Museum Flanders to realise the Sportimonium-project, a museum about the sports history of Flanders in its national and international context.

Especially as traditional games are concerned, both the tangible artefacts and intangible loan service, games park —see further aspect of the sporting heritage is taken into account. Actividades: The Centre for Sport Culture CSC has launched a variety of initiatives for safeguarding the tangible and intangible heritage of traditional games and sports: Research - In collaboration with the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the CSC carries out research on traditional games inventory, evolution, organisational structure,..

For enquiries the centre calls upon the traditional sports federations for collaboration. Documentation centre and library open to the general public - ca. This collection has been handed over to the Sportimonium in In this museum one of the sections is entirely dedicated to traditional games worldwide.

Therefore the visitors can get acquainted with the skills of a variety of traditional games which are still practised locally in Flanders. As the future teachers and sport administrators they are invited to the Sportimonium in order to sensitize them and to get them acquainted with traditional games. Counselling and support - supporting festivals organized by the traditional games players - helping clubs, federation and their individual members in research matters - counselling associations or federations for candidatures for the Belgian list of elements of intangible heritage - participation in governmental assessment committees cultural matters - collaboration with Unesco project on traditional games , platform for traditional games worldwide The staff of the CSC has almost 30 years experience in safeguarding traditional games.

The staff members 3 have university degrees and have followed in the course of years many courses related to the safeguarding of intangible heritage. The CSC is in close contact with other organisations in the country taking care of popular culture in order to exchange experience. The same goes for engagement in the international network of the European Association for Traditional Sports and Games, of which the CSC has been among the pioneers.

Due to these constant contacts, on the one hand with the practitioners of traditional games and at the other hand with professionals working in the fields of culture, sport and tourism the personnel of the CSC has acquainted its competences.

The CSC has been instrumental in helping the clubs to get in contact with each other and to found if appropriate federations of their own. This resulted in in the foundation of a confederation for traditional games Vlaamse Traditionele Sporten vzw, VlaS with the CSC as one of the founding members.

This confederation grew steadily from to The CSC is member of the board of directors of VlaS and vice versa, firstly in order to be well informed about each other activities and initiatives, secondly to collaborate where appropriate. While constructing the traditional games park, there has been close cooperation with practitioners in testing and adapting the facilities in full respect with the games while using — if possible - modern materials.

One of the CSC objectives is to make the bearers of the intangible heritage, i. This must lead to an enhanced self-consciousness towards heritage in order to hand it down and to defend it. Important for the CSC remains, furthermore, exchange and collaboration with other organisations experienced in the domain of popular culture and in safeguarding intangible heritage. At the National reviews our jury of specialists meets more than collectives, evaluates their qualities and their art.

The Section communicates with those groups as to organize participation for them in different Festivals and Folklore events all over the world. We assist concerts and presentations of those ensembles. For better communication with all those collectives from different parts in Bulgaria the section collaborates with 24 choreographers who are responsible for particular regions of the country.

Meetings with those coordinators are organized frequently and any needed and important information is given to them. More than choreographers from the country take part in the annually organized seminars of the choreographers in Bulgaria.

At those events are discussed different problems related with the folklore and its popularization. In many of our activities we co-operate with the Ministry of Culture, with the Union of the cultural clubs in Bulgaria, and with different organizations working in the cultural domain. During the organization of the Festivals in Sofia and Veliko Tarnovo we co-operate with a lot of people who have experience in the folklore sphere in order to choose groups of a great quality fot the Festivals and to present them our traditions in best way.

It benefits from the cross-disciplinary exchange of its members — architects, archaeologists, art historians, engineers, historians, planners, who foster improved heritage conservation standards and techniques for all forms of cultural properties: buildings, historic towns, cultural landscapes, archaeological sites, sites having intangible values, etc.

It also runs 28 specialised International Scientific Committees on a variety of subjects. One of these is the International Committee on Intangible Cultural Heritage which, within the mandate of ICOMOS as an organisation concerned with the conservation of monuments and sites, specialises in the protection of sites that have intangible values and in so doing the conservation of the intangible that gives value to certain monuments and sites.

ICOMOS has six principal objectives: To bring together conservation specialists from around the world and serve as a forum for professional dialogue and exchange; To collect, evaluate and diffuse information on conservation principles, techniques and policies; To co-operate with national and international authorities on the establishment of documentation centres specialising in conservation; To work for the adoption and implementation of international conventions on the conservation and enhancement of architectural heritage; To participate in the organisation of training programs for conservation specialists on a world wide scale; To put the expertise of qualified professionals and specialists at the service of the international community.

ICOMOS members, who are specialists in the management of sites with intangible cultural heritage associations, were part of their national delegations in the drafting process of the ICH Convention. The core business of ICOMOS is the conservation of monuments and sites and the development of standards of professional practice and networks.

Our focus is how appropriate and adequate protection of sites can strengthen intangible heritage practices; and how intangible values such as traditional knowledge systems, crafts and practices contribute to the sustainability of cultural places and landscapes. Key activities in this area: Debate around ICH and its associations with monuments and sites.

ICH features strongly in regards to the strengthening of traditional practices and the benefits for sustainability and indigenous practices associated with cultural landscapes. Development of national and international standards of professional intangible cultural heritage practice in relation to sites and landscapes. The establishment of a network of specialists in ICH values. Members are actively involved in research and documentation activities under the Convention; they share expertise and activate to promote the convention.

UK, Australia and Mexico. Our members actively participate in national and international conferences and publish extensively on this subject through scholarly books and peer reviewed journals. Perpetuation and transmission of the ICH aspects of a site. Strengthening of ICH practices. Identification of conservation measures needed on a site to ensure continuation of associated cultural practices Recognition and strengthening of traditional land management systems as a means of conserving a site and associated ICH practices.

Training of community members in conventional heritage conservation practice, tourism management, etc. ICOMOS members routinely work with issues associated with community heritage and international standards and governance systems for conservation of heritage, both tangible and intangible.

Tsenka Ivanova and Dr. Svetlozar Vlaykov - Intern. Svetlozar Vlaykov — Intern. Les festivals invitent et font la promotion des peuples minoritaires et autochtones. Le CQPV dispense de plus des formations professionnelles relatives aux arts traditionnels. Des cahiers de stage sont ensuite produits pour les participants. Assistance technique aux Administrations. Projets pilotes. Promotion et diffusion des informations relatives au Patrimoine Gastronomique traditionnel, y compris site web en construction.

The CCCC was created in and its main purposes, as stablished in its by-laws, are: Promote human towers and its values, spread its knowledge, and to stimulate research on the topic, while looking after its good image and safeguarding. Manage and defend the affiliates' common interests and goods. CCCC is currently in charge to hire insurance policies for all the 'colles'.

Represent the human towers collective before the administrations, media, etc. Promote good practices on human towers, especially on safety. Promote good understanding among its affiliates. As you can see, the organization's first aim deals directly with the safeguarding of this cultural intangible heritage element. Actividades: Some of the activities the CCCC has developed in recent years that deal with intangible cultural heritage safeguarding are: Promotion: The CCCC has two websites that provide information regarding human towers.

The first one www. The second one www. Both websites also explain what the Intangible Heritage Convention from Unesco is. Documentation: The www. New data is added each weekend, as new performances take place. Catalan Human Towers", whose aim is to sanction official products and goods which give part of its profits to the "colles castelleres". Promotion: The CCCC has developed several actions aimed to promote human towers among concrete collectives, such as immigrant population or children through schools.

The last of these actions is an activity that promotes both human towers and reading through libraries. The first one is dedicated to safety and technical issues regarding human towers. The second one deals with legal, financial and organizational matters.

The CCCC has also been responsible to develop several studies that have allowed human towers to become a safer activity, including the development of a special helmet used by children climbing on the towers. Revitalization: As a federation that gathers all the "colles", the CCCC also works as a forum where all the different groups can debate and decide jointly the future path for the element.

Revitalization: The CCCC offers help to new "colles" when they are born, while at the same time checking that these new groups respect the human towers tradition and established values. Preservation, protection and revitalization: The CCCC boosted in the document titled "The Social Values of Human Towers", approved by all members, in which the "colles" ratified their compromise with values such as amateurism, a sustainable and responsible management, inner pluralism and democratic functioning.

Most of these actions can be checked through our websites. This means that it is made up of groups that work the intangible cultural heritage. Again, as stated before, the board of directors itself is made up of intangible cultural heritage practitioners. At the same time, it is alas important to acknowledge that CCCC works democratically. Key decisions have to be taken by the General Assembly, where every group is represented. The board of directors is also voted by the General Assembly.

All this means that the organization's tradition is to build consensus and negotiate between its members to find a position where everyone or at least a huge majority feels comfortable. Although safeguarding intangible cultural heritage is not CRIA's primary objective, a majority of its researchers working mostly, but not only, within two thematic lines: "Culture: Practices, Politics, Displays" and "Power, Knowledge, Mediations" deal directly or indirectly with this issue.

They explore it from a theoretical and analytical standpoint, and they resort to it as a framework for applied research and for intervention on the field. Their ethnographic activity provides the empirical basis and the cultural knowledge that are necessary for an objective assessment of the relevance, interest, urgency, viability and sustainability of safeguarding initiatives.

Additional information: CRIA contributes in direct and indirect ways to safeguard Intangible Cultural Heritage lCH through the activities of its researchers, namely through: Theoretical and reflexive examinations of the notion of ICH, thus contributing to its conceptual understanding and elucidation.

The organization of conferences and public lectures which allow for the diffusion of this knowledge to society in general and particularly to cultural agents and mediators. Consuiting activities requested by organizations and institutions dedicated to the survey, study and promotion of ICH. Actividades: The competence and expertise of CRIA researchers in the field of intangible cultural heritage come from their academic background as anthropologists and from the intense ethnographic activity that is inherent to their research.

The scope of their research encompasses rural and urban settings. As a result of their lengthy presence in the field, they come to gain a deep cultural intimacy with the communities and groups they study and whose life they share. They are therefore often seen by these as valid contributors and partners in actions aimed at the safeguarding of local cultural heritage.

Students can be associate members. Many CRIA researchers conceive of their research as visual anthropology among whom chiefly Catarina Alves Costa, an internationally renowned documentary film-maker. CRIA members also necessarily carry out an epistemological and methodological reflection in such fields as museum studies, tourism, conservation, heritage: Maria Cardeira da Silva, Anthony Shelton, Nuno Additional information: The competence and expertise of CRIA's researchers in the field of ICH come from their academie background as anthropologists and from the intense ethnographic activity inherent to their research, carried out both in rural and urban settings, in Portugal and abroad.

As a result of their lengthy presence in the field, anthropologists come to gain a deep cultural intimacy with the communities and groups they study and whose Iife they share. Therefore, they are often seen by the latter as valid contributors and partners in actions aimed at the safeguard of local cultural heritage. Our researchers have worked on themes that are relevant for the promotion and protection of ICH and their work stimulated processes that contributed to actions regarding the safeguard and revitalization of cultural heritage by the communities involved.

Paulo Raposo conducted a funded research project on the processes of folk culture objectification in Portugal which has led to a privileged relationship with local communities and cultural organizations in Northern Portugal, resulting in his being requested to provide information and support to the conception and establishment of an on-site local museum in Podence.

Jean-Yves Durand is involved in an international network France, Italy, Spain, Canada, Mexico dedicated to the investigation and promotion of handierafts and was recently appointed Director of the Museu da Terra de Miranda Portugal , where he has launched a study of homing-pigeons races, a controversial local tradition. As a result of this project, the anthropologist was invited to work as a consultant for the Mapping of Azorean-Based Culture, promoted by a research center in Santa Catarina, Brazil, an initiative involving thousands of activists representing the communities of Azorean-based culture in that state.

Leal is currently sinee a member of the Scientific Board of the Azorean Communities Portal, which aims at spreading the Azorean culture along the diaspora. He is also a member sinee of the network of activists and academies who have been organizing the International Congresses on the Holy Spirit , 3rd edition. Emllia Margarida Marques has worked for the township of Marinha Grande Portugal creating an archive and documentation database now available at the local public historical archive - also created in part as a result of the project.

The anthropologist was further invited by the municipality to conduct two studies on the local glass industry, published during the commemorations of its th anniversary. This project is intended to provide a better understanding of the relationship between a local human populations, b other animais, namely chimpanzees, c the forests surrounding these African villages. It contributes to the development of a national strategy for the preservation of the species, taking into account the needs of the local human population.

Studies about the cultural perceptions of animals in general and chimpanzees in particular were undertaken by the researchers. The results have been incorporated in the discourse of tourism guidebooks, thus encouraging its conservation. Claudia Sousa collaborated in the training of rangers of IBAP Institute for Biodiversity and Protected Areas, Guinea-Bissau and eco-guides tour guides in a project of the NGO AD - Action for Development , on issues related to the behavior and ecology of primate species in the country, the techniques used for monitoring these species and special care that people should have when they move into the forest.

Research: title; coordinator; funding; date -- Portuguese Castles aboard II. Additional information: CRIA's anthropologists partake in projects always implying close and intense relationships with communities and groups based on mutual respect: deontology of ethnography-making requires in all cases the researchers' respect for the individuals, groups and institutions they work with.

Results were published and allowed for the definition of norms of certification, as forgeries of this product had started to be imported, jeopardizing the income of hundreds of women who had gained social autonomy thanks to their work. Risks of fossilization and reification of the product were avoided by introducing a specific certification category for "Innovations".

Durand also co-organized, with alocal ecomuseum, an international conference on "Animal fights". The controversial tradition of bull-baiting and, on alesser scale, of cockfighting is strong in a small region of Northern Portugal. Observing the dynamics of this controversy, the anthropologist can act as a go-between.

Appointed Director of a local museum, Durand launched a study on homing-pigeons races which raise similar issues. Clara Saraiva coordinated a multidisciplinary team working in Aldeia da Luz, a rural community in Portugal forced to abandon their old village to relocate when a government-sponsored dam was built which would leave their homes underwater.

Fieldwork with the population was done to create an ethnographic record of the community before relocation and to document their resettiement not far away. Results were used to form the local museum, generating a living memory of the village and its recreation. Leal's observation and reflection about the transformation undergone by these cultural practices when they shift from the original context to migratory ones, and the impact of that transformation back on the Islands, is relevant to the documentation and registry of this process.

Et toutes les rencontres avec d'autres formes d'expressions. Les liens se font avec un professeur responsable. Nous ne pouvons plus, faute de moyens, assurer cette mission. Establish and mantain infrastructure and facilities for preservation and development of cultural heritage and youth talents and skills development. Develop talents and skills of the youth for self - reliance. Additional information: The Memorandum and articles of association provide eight general objectives.

Each objective can be operationalised by a big programme. This was intended to give unlimited scope and alternative programme areas but impossible to be all implemented. Culture become the instrument of the empowerment of the youth to build confidence and creativity for self-reliance. Skills and talents are developed in cultural and indigenous expression, like music, dance, drama and folklore. Youths and women entrepreneurial skills were developed in safeguarding, preservation and promotion of indigenous knowledge and entreprises.

Cultural values and indigenous knowledge was re-claimed to promote leadership and society organisation. Thus positive traditions, customs and philosophy in proverbs and sayings are used to promote good leadership practices. The target for partnership and networking are cultural clubs and associations in the target society who are also targets for membership and beneficiaries to the programme. At external level, the target for partnership are organizations that support culture or cultural approach to development, protection and promotion of indigenous or traditional knowledge.

Hence the organisations with which we have networking and partnership relationship include -Cross Cultural Foundation of Uganda which documents and publishes our innovative cultural approaches. This is the ministry incharge of culture and heritage.

This objective gave raise to the overall theme of the organisation as a culture and development which is operationalised into an overall cultural approach to development. It should be however noted that the organisation is in need of rephase the objectives in the memorandum and articles of association to be directed to this theme. Actividades: Engabu Za Tooro researches, documents and reproduces the traditional folklore and promote it to modern stage through community perfomances, festivals and competitions.

Engabu Za Tooro identifies critical indigenous knowledge in the in the traditions revitalises it and reconstructs it into modern social development using music, publications and media. Engabu Za Tooro develops cultural enterprises and services and professionalises service providers through training and market development.

Engabu Za Tooro collects and preserves traditional materials into community museum. Engabu Za Tooro mobilises, trains and coordinates cultural consultants and practioners who constitutes its membership, personnel and programme beneficiaries. It also benefits from international training workshops and exposure as a result of its accreditation to World Intellectual Property organisation WIPO intergovernmental committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional knowledge and folklore accreditation certificate attached.

Additional information: Engabu Za Tooro currently has two major programme areas 1. Youth Talent Development This programme mobilises and trains the youth to develop their talents and skills in their indigenous cultural expression in perfoming art and folklore so the programme researches, documents, publishes and promotes peoples cultural heritage in form of folklore and music. The programme re-invests the people's indigenous wisdom in proverbs, sayings and oral traditions, promote and intergrate it in the mainstream development thought and practice.

This old wisdom is promoted by research and re-producing it in music, dance which is popularised through festivals and competitions. Art pieces produced around the old traditions of indigenous communities has won national and international music and video awards. The Cultural Troupe which packages this traditional wisdom perfoms at national and international venues and events.

Culture in Development Programme This programme researches, documents and promotes indigenous knowledge in production. Thus it promotes cultural enterprises and services and uses traditional knowledge in peoples traditions to inspire and stimulate economic activity. Specific activities involve research, training and market development of indigenous enterprises and collection and preservation od cultural materiall in community museum.

Koogere women empowerment project which uses the old tradition of a heroine to stimulate grasroot women participation has been recorgnised as a model case study in re-constructing people's traditions in today's development practice. The organisation currently is using experience of participating in the WIPO's sessions of Intergovernmental committee on intellectual property and genetic resources traditional knowledge and folklore to develop a programme of protection of traditional knowledge through research and documentation.

The organisation is networking with traditional knowledge digital library of India and national indigenous knowledge systems office South Africa to develop the programme of protection of indigenous knowledge. Yes, we are also registered with the NGO board.

The certificate is attached. These certificates are renewed periodically and in most cases processes of renewal are delayed. The organisation is also finalising a process of entering a amemorandum of understanding for partnership with government through the Uganda ministry in charge of culture i. The organisation links and facilitates cultural groups to exhibition festival and training oppotunities.

The organisation holds an annual cultural festival called "Koogere Week" where heritage practitioners come together to compete, debate, exhibit, demonstrate and celebrate. FEMP aims to promote the understanding of the role of craft skills and craft conservation for the preservation of monuments and cultural objects. FEMP also seeks to improve the strategic framework for international training in order to develop and expand heritage craft skills.

To this end, FEMP is engaged both in political advocacy and in the exchange, dissemination and expansion of expertise at international level. This is due to a declining number of apprentices on the one hand, who are channelled, through assymetric education policies, into higher education with VET left underdevelped.

On the other hand, biased conservation regulations, standards and procurement practices have detrimental effects to craft trades businesses and their day-to-day work endangering the constant reproduction of their skills sets. By keeping up an expert dialogue and informing on these problems as well as by teaching, researching on and promoting traditional craftsmanship and heritage skills, FEMP seeks to foster the general understanding for crafts people and their issues in order to improve the strategic framework for traditional craftsmanship in heritage preservation.

Actividades: Knowledge Transfer Through its members engaged in the research on and training of heritage skills, FEMP supplies vast specialist knowledge on the intangible cultural heritage of traditional crafts. Its eldest member, the European Center for Heritage Crafts and Professions has extensive experience in conducting international courses, going back to The European Centre provides CVET courses specifically for heritage preservation in theory and practice, as well as special Italian preservation and restoration techniques.

This course targets painters and decorators, stucco plasterers, metalworkers, carpenters and joiners, stone masons and sculptors, gilders and bricklayers. The European Centre is the only institution in Europe offering such specialised courses not just on national scale, but also for participants from other countries.

The apprentices are given the opportunity to apply what they have learnt under the supervision of the Centre's instructors. The craftsmen participating are expected to deepen and extend their knowledge and skills in restoration and heritage preservation. In addition, they will get to know specific Italian techniques, swap "tricks of the trade" with craftsmen from other countries in the classrooms and workshops, and - once back in their home countries - pass on what they have learnt to their colleagues and other apprentices.

The aim of the interaction with craftsmen from other countries is to reflect on one's own ways of working and to boost one's self-confidence. Demonstrating, imitating, correcting and joint practicing skills improve the practitioners' command of handwork as a world language.

The know-how acquired benefits the material heritage and its preservation.

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