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Kehräsaari Vuolle ('Torrent') Bridge on 7th August jpg Muailman napa - Kuopion tori ja kaupungintalo - Multimäki - huge.sidpirbat.space In the summer of Tunnell was a featured artist at Lieksa Brass Week in from New England Conserva¬ tory, she was asked to join the faculty there. Tory Hill,Canada. Tottenham,Canada Lieksa,Finland. Lieto,Finland. Lohja,Finland Ixhuatlan del Cafe,Mexico. Ixhuatlan del Sureste,Mexico. OYSTERS MESHELL NDEGEOCELLO TORRENT However, there is the protection that an English Lancashire natural environment; he's. Enabled and statically with remote directories name of the. The specific flaw you never need to worry about.

One of the most important goals in the organizing of the event has always been the importing of new impulses to the ield of Finnish photography. The roots of the biennial reach into the s, when the event was known as Photographic Art — Everyday Art. Since the event has been organized as Helsinki Photography Biennial.

Another central issue has been the internationalization of the ield of photography. Therefore, while planning the biennial, we turned our gazes not only to Finland but also wider abroad. The theme of the biennial is ecological questions and the adjacent relationships of cause and effect. When the theme had been formulated, it felt obvious to invite the Finnish Mustarinda Association to develop it; Mustarinda is in the vanguard of its ield, promoting ecological and cultural diversity, and the position of various ields of arts and sciences.

At the same time, the exhibition publication became a part of the publication series of Mustarinda. The varied and authentically international Helsinki Photography Biennial is a natural continuation in the history of the event. It expands the ield of Finnish photography, offers the audience fascinating new visions, and emphasizes current themes and actors. This special issue was born as a collaboration of many actors. We have endeavored to make the publication work alongside the biennial and after it as an independent whole.

The sections approach the theme of the biennial from slightly different points of view, and are thus in dialogue on many levels. The schedule of the biennial, along with the exhibitions and events locations, as well as the authors of the texts and the organizers, are introduced at the end.

The project has been funded by the Finnish Cultural Foundation. In addition, the Kone Foundation has supported the making of the artworks of the biennial. These contradictions are not accidental, nor do they result from ordinary hypocrisy: they are deliberate exercises in doublethink. It is a logical error or a mistaken assumption in the in- terpretation of statistical data. What if the entire ecological balance of the world has already been violated while we have been listening to contradictory and twisted ideas put forth by these ruling forces?

What if we have become totally blind, deaf, and even mute, regarding what is going on around us? What if we have been trapped with all sorts of fallacies? George Orwell, Through such questions, the biennial aims to investigate fallacies of eco- New York: Penguin Group, , For a deinition of ecological fallacy, see the Research Methods tives as a way of producing and processing evidentiary critical, social, and Knowledge Base web-based text- cultural discourses on these fallacies.

The each other through subtle thematic divisions and oppo- two are present at HPB14 in the form of an installation sitions: while some works suggest marriages with other composed of photographs, a map, and a book, thus du- works based on content or form, others unfold obvious plicating the heavy experience of witnessing the una- oppositions.

Hence, Ecological Fallacy is also a modest at- voidable transformation of Istanbul. Koteshwor is just one of those sad text with compatible concerns. Through such alliances and distant examples of the inhuman imperatives of between projects, each and every venue is therefore capitalism. At the same time, these One of the main venues of the biennial is the Finnish frames provide clear evidence of the existence of unjust Museum of Photography.

The project documents the is based on a dystopia in the abandoned town Lla- Gezi Park resistance in Istanbul, the irst massive reac- no del Rio, plagued by water-supply troubles. The arid tion and nation-wide upheaval that started with protests setting overlaps the hysterical behavior of a woman per- against the logging of trees in the Gezi Park in spring forming compulsive actions accompanied by artiicial This spatial decision underlines an act of transla- for the destruction of a forest.

By using the Fresson print tion taking place on several different levels. While in technique in which the image is rendered with burned Turkey the movement has been subjected to censorship organic material, Miletic replicates with deep and dark and repression in the public realm including social me- images this destructive process and its consequences. The irst level of tive utterance to the biennial with her sculpture-like translation is the re-contextualization of a political situ- wooden construction.

The installation The Construction ation and democratic conditions. On the next level, the of A Utopian Model — functions as a viewing plat- photographs transform irsthand experiences into ab- form that invites and enforces the audience to make an stract, yet performative representations in the city. Last effort to access and experience a photograph that is the but not least, these photographs create spatial rifts by focal point in the work.

The photograph depicting a referring to different kinds of temporality and modes of concrete bridge built across a green valley foreshadows spatial perception. For instance, I truly wonder what the the transformation of this landscape. Such a photo- ries, and point of views, and a video projection of a tree graph certainly blends different time zones and creates growing out of a chimney that once belched out smoke.

In the last decades, the the War is Not Over I and II , resonate between be- city has been subject to massive destruction due to on- ing evidences of the past and fragments of personal going brutal urban transformation. Istanbul has been memory. Taycan fact and iction, Doherty questions the reliability of the not only collects evidences of this process, he also dis- medium itself. He draws a walking route for jar questions the mediated images with Postcapital Ar- a collective physical experience in west Istanbul, be- chive.

Being eficient apparatuses of late capitalism, all who dwell in landscapes that have undergone econom- communication technologies infuse our lives with a ic, political, and cultural transformations effected by constant barrage of images. Not only the images them- corporations and ruling political powers. All postcards foreshadow an ecological catastrophe tem on a global scale.

Helsinki University Main Library Kaisa House , is an Ali Cherri has worked with the Finnish Museum of installation consisting of sculptures made of plastic Photography Collection, paying special attention to waste washed up on the shore in Helsinki, as well as the relationship between power structures and the videos and analytical drawings. The installation hovers representational implications of nature.

In order to do around the accelerating threat to the sea and to human so, he has used the series Finnish Agriculture by life caused by severe pollution of plastic waste. Station and Untitled , as transparencies in light- These photographs hint at the shifting power relations boxes. Five photographs are evidences of imposed conditions that have become from the series Here, Anywhere — cover the entire normalized—even these frames give the impression of surface of the front windows of Galleria U at the Hun- being staged, despite simply being mundane details of garian Cultural and Scientiic Centre in Helsinki — Bal- daily life in Jerusalem.

These two contradictory views raise ques- logical debates. It is a modest attempt to understand the tions regarding the social, economical, political, and, effects of cultural and ideological actions on ecological more importantly, cultural processes governing urban catastrophes through exceptional artworks and artistic development. In this context, Photographic Gallery Hippo- prints Inheritance I to VII lean on the pillars in the lyte gathers photographs taken from several cult perfor- raw setting of the warehouse.

HPB14, through spreading across many different 3. Whether or not the subject jects, each one of the participating artists aims to es- is already dead, every photograph is this catastrophe. Has mankind civilization once its materialistic dimension had com- already generated greenhouse gases in quantities pletely prevailed over ethics. This applied in in general. Mankind has already shown that it lacks the particular to the prevailing Western-centric model of necessary political will to tackle the innate defect of hu- civilization, whose obvious imbalance with its natural man nature described already by the existentialists as an environment signiied a general social suppression of insatiable desire to have more: more space, more water, the intuitive, irrational, and unconscious qualities of the food, sex… and inally, more resources, which are, es- human condition.

In order to save nature and ourselves, we ian ambition to manipulate human consciousness. The human mind already pressed the fatal dichotomy of human nature wherein understood this simple truth about mankind a long every ideological deviation and violence is conceived. His mes- cal and social chimeras—were conditioned to become sage is simple, yet it sublimates the premise of every exceptionally perceptive in understanding the devia- honest activist in any period: do not consume history, tions of domains and processes within the structure of make it—an advice to follow and a thing to do.

In other words, we do not live in a kind of void, inside of which we could place individuals and things. We do not live inside a void that could be colored with diverse shades of light, we live inside a set of relations that delineates sites which are irreducible to one another and absolutely not superimposable on one another. The disconcerting nature of the image, the slippage W. It is a position from which I see and am seen: tinually deies representation. The question of positionality is key in the relective practices of these artists, as evidenced in the photo- graphs, videos, and installations that continually in- R EFER ENCES voke both the position of artist and the viewer.

Mary McIntyre physically constructs a viewing platform from Demos, T. Vampire in the Text, Narratives of Contemporary Art. Jawad Foucault, Michel. London: Blackwell Press, Marja He- Mitchell, W. Berlin: KW, Institute for in the supposed place of belonging. Contemporary Art, Mosquera, Gerardo. Shake your hand. Blur is part of life. This date can be seen as the turning point of a long process that started 9, years ago, in the Neolithic period in Mesopotamia, when humans slowly started to abandon their nomadic way of life in order to settle down.

Even if the emergence of these cities is intimately linked to the advent of technology, it was even before that linked to a miracle of nature: water. This unique form of intensity that might deine the city as a think tank, led to the rise of monotheistic religions as well as the Athenian democracy as ways to deine new modes of togetherness, but with dichotomy as their expen- sive counterpart.

This binary perspective has become deeply ingrained in our belief systems and our relationship with nature and other people: citi- zen vs. These op- positions effected a switch from horizontal society towards a hierarchical and specialized one. This demiurgic attitude towards nature has undergone different phases of development that follow the evolution of political, religious, and scien- tiic mutations.

Cities have been primary sites for the rise of new ideas and theo- ries. However, in a fast changing globalized world, it has been shown that some of these theories have failed to provide a sustainable model for society. Certainly, the above-mentioned planners cannot be the only culprits, for this spectacular rise of urban population around the world is part of a larger trend that began with the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century.

These igures illustrate perfectly the spectacular domination of mankind over nature and are an important tes- timony to the failure of urban planning. Even if the gap between these percentages is smaller in developing countries, the fact that the UN esti- mates that 1.

Nevertheless, with the impulse of global capitalism, cities around the world have abandoned their political and religious symbolism to redeine themselves as marketing tools used by developers and inancial actors. This phenomenon has been particularly readable in the post-Cold War period that witnessed the rise of a new Babel—Dubai, a little harbor on the Persian Gulf with a population of 30, in The myth of Dubai was of course built on fossil energy stocks during the second half of the 20th century, but the city boomed in the s with the impulse of new economic laws that facilitated the entry of foreign capital.

Today the city has some 2. Dubai is a landscape of desolation where all capi- talist diseases lourish: spectacular architecture designed with computer technology developed during the Cold War , an ultra-large carbon foot- print, and severe social inequities. The whole process is accompanied by alarming environ- mental phenomena revealed by measurements made during the past de- cades.

For a decade now, all urban design paradigms have been falling into a crisis. Economic growth reigns on computer screens. Here and there, ac- tivists are ighting to preserve their cities and nature. Cities and nature cannot be planned separately anymore, insofar as they are both complex systems. Blur might be the paradigm of the future. Shake your hand! Working through the photography, video, and site-speciic installations. He often explores marginalized communities year, I documented the landscape transformations result- and their relationship with their environment.

Photographed from the nearby Israeli Uncertainty, draws from observations settlement, the panoramic images reveal the intensely ac- of crowds in the Middle East in between cumulative topographies of the built environment that periods of transformation. His works are held in private and public have become a testimony to dislocation. The photographs, collections both in Europe and in the Middle some of them also taken inside the camp, reveal narrow East, including the British Museum, London, passageways and explore the legacy of waiting and the pre- and the Barjeel Art Foundation, Sharjah.

Actual construction is always postponed in the Biennial and the 53rd Venice Biennale the hope of imminent return, the need for buildings is dictated exhibition at the Palestinian Pavillion being curated by Salwa Mikdadi. His work Still Life: by circumstance, and all this is relected in the randomly Doves, a tribute to Donna Haraway, was also built structures that, in turn, point to the present reality— part of Documenta 13 in Kassel.

Al Malhi has been a resident artist in several This permanent temporariness has shaped the culture of venues, including the Delina Foundation in the camp and inevitably vacated time of meaning. Drawn London and the Townhouse Gallery in Cairo In one series, I focused on a con- He has also been nominated for the Prix Pictet. The work highlights their isolation, their interaction with the street, power relationships, and control over the geography of the container, in which time appears monoto- nous, mundane, and endless, while the control of space takes on a new precedence.

Transparency in lightbox by Jawad al Malhi. Courtesy of the artist. The Gas Station Digital prints on paper by Jawad al Malhi. Inheritance I Timeline Postcapital Archive. He began , a multimedia project by Daniel G. Time- technologies in order to question the underlying democratic and egalitarian assumptions of such line is a kind of visual narrative of the geopolitical, econom- media, criticizing the desire for control concealed ic, societal, and cultural shifts that have taken place in the by their apparent transparency.

Most of his art last twenty years—yet it does not follow a strictly linear projects are based on collaborative research that chronology, except for the irst and the last image. He is also a much chronologically as a performative act of decoding long-time member of irational.

The work ren- of collective online projects such as art-net- ders the construction of historical events by the media just dortmund, e-barcelona. Media, Karlsruhe. Daniel G. Later he also completed a studio program at CCA, Center for Contemporary Art in Kitakyushu, followed by In a place without history, what do we remember? Caught in or, more precisely, evocations that generate a moment of lux, still identiied by its uninished and sus- imagination.

His works emerge from his evolving experience of various international contexts and pended structures, IJburg is a location that could easily be are often placed in the public domain. The project has a strong per- Project Space, a research platform for artistic and curatorial practices based in Skopje.

He has also participated in group illusion of the politically projected concept of new urban- shows and events, most recently at Salzburger ity. He participated in two editions of Manifesta initiated in IJburg by Jeanne van Heeswijk and developed as well, number 3 in Ljubljana , and between and The aim of the project was to inves- number 7 in Bolzano Among other awards, he has been awarded the Pew Fellowship in the Arts for his practice.

Yane Calovski lives and works in Skopje. Inha — at the American University in Beirut in Finnish with video, installation, performance, and print. Thus, using a large format camera, Inha His work explores the sources, formats, and platforms of historical visual documentation to created his Finnish Agriculture series, which included photo- reveal the factors that determine how graphs of the cows either in front of a white studio back- imagination and image come together in deining ground or in their rural environment.

For the public opinion, the success International Film Festival; Centre Pompidou, on the cultural front was important. His solo show placed in front of a homogeneous background and wearing On Things That Move opened at the Galerie no accessories. Cherri has received the Muhr Arab Short in the sense that it became possible to access it through rep- Best Director Award at the 10th Dubai resentation: we could observe an autonomous object de- International Film Festival and the tached from its subject.

By constructing a narrative around the photographs of cows, I want to look at the complex relationship between portrait photography, photographic archives, and the con- struction of national identities. Digitized negatives from the Finnish Museum of Photography Collection. Courtesy of the Finnish Museum of Photography, Helsinki. The map of Hungary is speckled with time capsules. Dur- He works on long-term projects that focus on ing the political transformation that took place twenty ive the margins of society in Hungary, Romania, and years ago, as the country changed, it simply forgot about in other parts of Eastern Europe.

His work has been exhibited worldwide at the certain places. Streets, blocks of lats, vacant lots, and entire following places and events: Foam, Amsterdam districts became self-deined enclosures where a certain ; Crane Kalman Brighton ; New outdated, awkward, longed-to-be-forgotten Eastern Euro- York Photo Festival ; Budapest Kunsthalle peanness still lingers today.

There are places that seem to ; Kunsthaus Hamburg ; Expo be parts of a single spatial entity within the city, but their Chicago ; Photoville, New York City ; University of New Mexico Art Museum, coexistence in time is only apparent; places that decompose Albuquerque ; Hungarian National Gallery, following a speciic chronology of their own, determined Budapest ; Athens Photo Festival, ; by their past in such a way that their remains will either be AIPAD New York ; Paris Photo Los silently reclaimed by nature or engulfed by the lifestyles of Angeles ; Paris Photo , , future generations.

The pictures record the historical manifestations of a country that, having shaken off the constraints of foreign powers many times, has successively demonstrated that it is quite incapable of arranging its own power relations and social structure in a manner that would comply with com- mon European values. A country where, in recent times, the entanglement of competing political interests has re- sulted in the disappearance of the belief that power can be exercised in a modern, democratic way.

Night Watchman Budapest, , from the series Here, Anywhere —. He earned an MA from original paintings borrowed from museum collections into the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb before his installations. Private collec- tion, Paris. Dust of Louvre and Mist of Amazon Waddington Galleries, London. Photograph by Lorand le Cat. Speculation about the au- the landscape and politics of Northern Ireland.

The call verein; the Dallas Museum of Art; the Speed for evidence and proof of the ceaseire went hand in hand Art Museum, Louisville; the Fruitmarket Gallery, with the requirement for a veriiable process of the decom- Edinburgh; the Laboratorio Arte Alameda, missioning of all weapons held by paramilitary groups.

The limits of what is visible begin to break down. The and ; Manifesta 8, Murcia ; shadows are darker. The tangle of the undergrowth absorbs and Documenta 13, Kassel The lost coexists with the forgotten. The sub- Doherty has been shortlisted for the Turner conscious is laid bare by the play of light, the shimmering Prize twice, in and , and was awarded a DAAD residency in Berlin in A memory from the past is triggered by the incidental de- Willie Doherty lives and works in Donegal tails of a scene, an unexpected sound, an image.

The glint and Derry. Cibachrome photograph mounted on aluminium by Willie Doherty. He developed his a series of photographs in which his body was the main subject. In he made his irst subversive and experimental practice in the vivid scene of experimental ilm, a medium in which he would the Yugoslavian cinema clubs during the s and 70s. The be later recognized by being awarded several phenomena of cinema clubs as incubators of avant-garde prizes at ilm festivals.

Besides his work in these thinking is based on the principal state support to clubs as areas, Gotovac also created collages inspired by training grounds for the development of public socialist the work of Kurt Schwitters. In he started performing in Zagreb with a piece called ilm culture. The support was based on a lesser level of con- Our Happ. His provocative actions were usually trol and so it opened space for social critique and resistance performed unannounced in front of a public to ideological apology represented in the ilms produced by audience.

This was the case with Streaking the state ilm companies. Gotovac was an active participant , and also Zagreb, I Love You! Upon his return to including those of Superman, a street cleaner, Zagreb, Gotovac spent decades staging performances close a chimney sweep, a mummy, and Santa Claus.

Recently, his work has been shown geois environment. Not surprisingly, the police often brought his public performances to the abrupt end. Performance by Tomislav Gotovac. Photograph by Ivan Posavec. Courtesy of the Tomislav Gotovac Institute, Zagreb. Sickle, Hammer and Red Star Photograph by Nino Semialjac. Superman In most of my photos I explore the conlict encounter between the contemporary and between the customary Sami way of life and modern soci- the traditional. Her media are photography, ety.

My works also take into account my own identity clash- video, and installation. Helander has participated in solo and group exhibitions both in Finland and abroad, Some of the photographs in the series were taken in Va- particularly in Scandinavia, where she has works rangerfjord, Norway, the place where the irst inhabitants in several museum collections. She has exhibited of northern Scandinavia, the Sami people, appeared some her work widely, including at the Ateneum 10, years ago. Sami environment, the mountains she walks in the foot- More recently, her works have been displayed at the Northern Photographic Center, Oulu steps of her reindeer-herdsmen ancestors.

The movement ; Danielle Arnaud Gallery, London ; continues, but the frame of reference is different. C-print on aluminum by Marja Helander. Jarlbro works mostly with an analog 35mm camera. His photographs provide in-depth Next to Koteshwor runs the river Jadibuti, and on either descriptions of politically precarious countries— side there are two small stone mills.

Fed up with the bus moving one meter every daily lives, he published a book, Nepal and Mao. Other similar publications by him include twenty minutes, I decided to walk the last bit into the capi- The Falling Kingdom, Stonefactory, and tal, Kathmandu. I was curious, so I fol- Jarlbro has had solo shows at various venues lowed the sound and found two stone mills sitting on each around the world, including PhotoSynthesis bank of the river.

They crush big blocks of stone Na Pradle, Prague. Nonetheless, in the course of my photographic work, my Jarlbro has received numerous grants from admiration for these people kept growing. Olof Jarlbro lives and works in both Bulgaria and Scania, Sweden. The artist himself, however, prefers Rio, founded in in California by the socialist Job Har- to view them as an integral part of his artistic riman. As a result of a failure to irrigate the ields and dis- oeuvre, if not the very breeding ground for putes over water supplies, the project and the community a working method that has come to deine his artistic output.

An essential commonality itself were abandoned nearly one hundred years ago. To put throughout his work is the question of all this into perspective and to relect upon the very con- representation, understood as the manner cept of a collapsed utopia, a set of rain bars, similar to those in which we create images—and how those typically used to create artiicial rain in ilms, were in- images, in turn, conjure ideas, expectations and stalled above the ruins.

One could say that, to Just, the interesting thing about representation is that Apart from exploring the demise of Llano del Rio, the it never merely represents. Rather, it actively rain also brings into play the observations on the concept performs. Music often plays a key role in his of the ruin made by the late German sociologist and phi- work, adding an element of oddness and losopher Georg Simmel in his essay The Ruin Accord- absurdity by creating an apparent contradiction between the narrative and the soundscape.

The ing to Simmel, architecture can be seen as a struggle be- materials, surfaces, and spatial materiality of the tween man and nature, with man empowering the latter. Jesper Just lives and works in New York City. A group of environmental activists protest- and state politics.

Using reality as his instrument, ed against the decision by pitching tents in the park. Dur- his works often feature motion and streets. Kayan has exhibited his works in many Due to this incident and the excessive use of force applied venues and events, including Santralistanbul to the protesters, public awareness increased immediately.

An ironic example was when, during the most violent clash, one of the most popular television channels aired a documentary on penguins. The disregard and bias of the media were thus calling for independent photogra- phers like myself to take action.

It became my mission and that of many other volunteers to document the facts and inform the public about these incidents. During this period, I kept protesting, both as a photogra- pher and as an environmental activist.

In this process, photographers were arrested myself included , all their works were destroyed, their actions invalidated, and most of them got injured. The best thing I could do was to take photos to tell the world about what was happening, be- cause I believe that a photographer cannot remain neutral and should take sides instead.

Accordingly, the photo series Occupy Taksim is based on personally experienced, nonic- tional incidents. Courtesy of the Finnish Museum of Photography. Images from the photo series Occupy Taksim by Barbaros Kayan. The images and the gallery spaces they inhabit. Typically, the atmosphere of each location resonates from photograph is experienced as a lat image; however, McIn- the image.

Through the integra- occurs in these locations at speciic times of day, tion of sculptural elements, she investigates the role that when the play of light or weather transforms the installation can play in the exhibition of photography. Belfast — Museum of Contemporary Arts, Prague ; Upon reaching the viewing platform, one is met with a Tides, Miller Gallery at Carnegie Mellon vibrant vista, a landscape of rich hues and lush foliage.

Gouged out of the land, it is destined to be- ; Northern Ireland: 30 Years of Photography, come a roadway, soon to cut through this landscape. The photographic image that sits at the heart of this work explores the notion of landscape as a cul- tural construct, a scene to be pictured, framed, and deined by our relationship to it.

Photograph by Mary McIntyre. She is currently in residency at bridge. Miletic has photographed the trees of the forest in the Jan van Eyck Academie, Maastricht. Although The photographs are printed with the Fresson technique, documentary photography lies at the core of her practice, Miletic no longer considers it to a carbon process from the early days of photography. It in- be a strictly photographic discipline.

She uses volves depositing natural carbon extracted from combusted photography as a catalyst within the working organic material on the paper in order to render the picture. Moreover, the Fresson printing technique pro- of a photographic image and the material form duces a dramatic, deep, and dark image quality, creating an in which it appears.

Furthermore, she often almost mystical atmosphere in the photographs. This gesture documents the trees in Forest-Sainte-Anne in a typologi- creates a dialogue which the artist considers necessary when engaging with a variable cal fashion, it also attempts to reinstate a sense of mystery social reality. Miletic has displayed her work in various ered an impenetrable place inhabited by wolfs, witches, exhibitions and presented her publications at and robbers.

Fresson prints color carbon prints by Hana Miletic. Banner Photograph by Hana Miletic. It refers to the malleability or plasticity of the material. Helsinki University of Technology. She is currently conducting practice-led doctoral research at the Plastics can be cast or shaped into almost any form. University of the Arts in Helsinki.

Plastic pollution repre- tation. She constructs experimental visual sents a serious challenge, especially to marine life. As sea- interfaces that connect the observer with the fabric of the world. Images that emerge from birds ingest pieces of plastic, and bags and pellets damage this interaction unleash the inherent pictorial marine organisms, the toxic compounds absorbed from potential of naturally occurring events. Her installations also showcase the The Baltic Sea Plastique installation sets out to explore the instruments and methods used in their making, complexity and controversial nature of the environmental encouraging spectators to participate in the threat caused by plastic waste.

The work combines the plas- re-presentation of an event. The modes of ticity of visual arts with the creative and resilient capacity knowing and meaning formation generated by her experimental visual practice constitute an of marine life. The astonishing plastic beauty and to the study of the phenomenal world.

Baltic Sea Plastique presents a plastic Animal Cameras, the Finnish Museum of world of sensations in which synthetic and organic forms Photography, Helsinki ; Prima Materia, coexist, interact, and create puzzling natural artifacts. Raqs follows its zon. Like a mirror that is also smoke. Raqs enjoys playing a plurality of a cancelled future. A furnace once burnt fuel. We are the roles, often appearing as artists, occasionally as curators, sometimes as philosophical agents fuel.

Sleeping under tons of earth like the ghost of a forest, provocateurs. Typically, a work by Raqs Media waiting for prospectors with toothy grins. Meanwhile, a tree Collective pursues the textured experience rehearses an industrial occupation. Macbeth is the man- of time, extends the horizons of reason and ager of the jute mill. He came from Dundee in Scotland to imagination and navigates the labyrinth of Baranagar in Bengal to feed the furnace.

The tree growing out of the chimney is just a signal, Their work has been shown at Documenta, resolving itself into eternity. He knows, in his bones, that Kassel; the Venice, Istanbul, Taipei, Liverpool, the forest will defeat him eventually. Premonition reigns. Detail from a collage made with treated ilm posters and dental X-rays by Raqs Media Collective. Courtesy of the artists. Suspended acrylic frames and video projection by Raqs Media Collective.

Some ef- public spaces, and ilms on a variety of issues such as economics, democracy, global warming, fects of global warming—desertiication, more frequent forms of resistance, and social alternatives. A fossil-fuel Ressler has participated in more than fundamentalism seems to prevail throughout the globe.

Deepwater drilling would have unpre- Art and Media, Karlsruhe; and Van Abbemuseum, dictable effects on the ish populations and on some of the Eindhoven. With the idyllic landscapes of the following biennials: Prague Biennale 2 ; Lofoten archipelago as its background, Leave It in the Ground the 2nd International Biennial of Contemporary Art, Seville ; the 2nd Moscow Biennale describes the climate crisis not as a technical and scientiic of Contemporary Art ; the 6th Taipei problem, but as a political one.

The ilm discusses how eco- Biennial ; the 10th Biennale de Lyon logical and humanitarian disasters caused by global warm- ; the 8th Gyumri International ing might topple old orders and open up possibilities that Biennial of Contemporary Art ; could lead to long-term social and political transforma- the 55th Venice Biennale ; and the 4th Athens Biennale Narration text: Oliver Ressler and John Barker.

Oliver Ressler lives and works in Vienna. Narrator: Andrew Golder. Camera and ilm editing: Oliver Ressler. Sound design, mix, and color correction: Rudolf Gottsberger. Footage: Mosireen and anonymous video makers. The Fountainhead. Directed by King Vidor and starring Gary cooperative works with political design, experimental economy, territorial ergonomics, Cooper and Patricia Neal, the studio movie tells the story and social engineering consulting, developing of Howard Roark, a Promethean modernist architect—a its production schemes through exhibitions, character based on Frank Lloyd Wright—who ights against publications, and conferences.

In , he of the most important megacities in the world. The destruction of traditional neighborhoods and their He is a member of the RecCollective of replacement by massive towers generates huge amounts of independent photographers. Layer after layer, as if Taycan works primarily with photography, but he also uses maps and walking as a medium. It is as if the city would be moving towards these sites, spaces, as well as the consequences entailed changing places, only to be rebuilt piece by piece after- by those changes, and how people are affected wards.

Removed from its original context, the city land- by the transformation processes involved. Taycan has work in the permanent collections scape is reconstructed—timeless, spaceless, and dimen- of institutions such as the Thessaloniki sionless. Shell relects upon this process. Along the way, the traveler encounters rural and Photomed, Mediterranean Photography Festival, forest areas, water basins, inner-city vegetable gardens, and Sanary-sur-Mer ; and the 13th Istanbul sites of cultural and historical importance such as the Biennial In , his exhibition the new airport, the road leading to the third Bosphorus Shell opened at the gallery that represents him Bridge, industrial and excavation dump sites, and housing —Elipsis Gallery, Istanbul—and he began the areas.

Between the Seas is therefore both a proposal and an walking trail work Between Two Seas. While Shell represents the recent transformation of Is- tanbul, Between Two Seas prioritizes the physical experience over the representational. Archival pigment print by Serkan Taycan. Courtesy of the artist and Elipsis Gallery, Istanbul. Shell 13 Shell 06 Shell 12 Each second, four million tonnes of plasma undergo fusion to generate incandescent energy.

Light is faeces. As it is excreted from the surface of the star, materials on Earth coa- lesce, disintegrate and writhe in agony and ecstasy. The optimal conditions for life: a narrow gravitational corridor between incineration by the sun and the deadly freeze of deep space. Over the course of mil- lennia, organic matter, consisting of lesh, bones, and bodily luids, nour- ished by the sun, has sunk to the ocean loor, created pressurised pockets, and gone silent.

It took countless lives and immeasurable destruction, pa- tience, and restlessness. The past years have been the Age of Oil, also known as modernity, a period that will soon be drawing to a close. It is ancient sunlight and, it follows, that all nutrition, photosynthesis, and the majority of energy originate in space. While all previous civilisations relied on the white sun, the black fossil sun dominates our thoroughly modern West- ern existence. This is to say that modern nihilism is not primarily a spiritual state, rather it has a material basis in the sun, in black and white.

There is no moral dis- tinction between the two: both are truly terrible entities and only in excep- tional circumstances, and often purely by coincidence, do they sustain life. New shale oil discoveries do not alter the Early 17th century European alchemists had a term for this sort of situation.

The nigredo symbolizes the sol number of extra years but it will niger, the black sun, under whose scorching heat the alchemist must work, come at the cost of highly intensive often for many years. Alchemy texts warn that many will never progress past local environmental destruction.

There black night. During the nigredo stage, the alchemist ex- is no reason to spare a single thought for our everyday plores the various states of death, examines the process necessities, whether production, logistics, or consump- of death within himself, among his community and in tion-related, as long as our energy supply remains an nature. As with fossil fuels, the destructive power of the effortless given.

Photography, however, can ind its way nigredo lies in nature, a subterranean and dangerous en- to these sites of dislocation and bear witness to their tity, entirely separate from the human existence. But even these photographs must be taken The utter blackness of the nigredo is obliterated by under the light of the black sun, from within the catas- light pollution. With the sun forgotten, the night artii- trophe.

In this sense, every image of contemporary life cially circumvented, the work goes on and our experi- is tarnished by oil and lit by the dark sun. However, it would appear, that it is in fact possible to ddd sustain life within the nigredo.

That it is possible to bear children and grow plants in the light of the black sun. The modern experience would have turned out very different indeed if oil, or another Viewed from the human perspective, the sun is, to all similarly abundant energy source, had not been avail- intents and purposes, eternal.

But the sun also has its able. The length of a solar ern, Western, urban, and thoroughly industrialized way cycle is 11 years. It is not an impossible prospect that the of life. The sort of economic growth we are accustomed fate of the fossil subject might be decided in the course to would also have been an impossible proposition had of the current cycle. Shale oil and other unconven- ing the Maunder minimum from to , for exam- tional sources and methods do not change the bottom ple, sunspots were very rare.

In , EROEI ratios may chiolitis and in the years that followed European crop have stood as high as but even the most optimistic yields plummeted, the Thames often froze in winter and current estimates stand at approximately A political What might a post-fossil photograph look like? If you set pessimist might take that to mean a form of slavery, out to capture the human-nature relationship, whether something that is already a reality in the poor south deteriorating or improving, we must, almost inevitably, where the well-oiled life is already conditional upon do so in the glare of the black sun.

Presently, oil-related hard physical graft. And they are The modern life from the beginning of industrial oil everywhere. After all, our water comes from the tap, our usage onwards is associated with the fantasy of accelera- light from a lamp, our food from the shop, and to get to tion, a child-like faith in limitless growth and the stead- nature, we drive.

The fragmentation and dislocation of fast belief in the feasibility of a universally comfortable life for all. For a few generations, oil delivered this pow- er and lifestyle but in reality what it always had to offer may actually have been the exact opposite. When a life 2.

Worldwatch Institute , The estimated EROEI of oil generated from bituminous sands and bitumi- ized itself: humans will hit escape velocity from the cy- nous sand ranges between — Worldwatch Institute , But when the methods, and the quality of the deposits and the extracted oil sand.

Shoe Dryer There is no end to this alchemistic night, no promise of a coming dawn and it is possible to be persuaded that this year-long stretch of exceptional living conditions is, in fact, something normal. On the one hand, oil is a solvent more potent than aqua regia into which all differences, idiosyncrasies, and local quirks melt effortlessly and often almost willingly. On the other, it is a wedge, an isolating material disruption that separates object from subject and nature from culture.

However, if we were to con- sider nature as something that cannot be reduced to a fundamental whole, something that is exposed, sheltered, and punished by the sun, we, in a plan- etary sense, end up with a positive glut of resources. Instead, our problem is an abundance of energy, since energy will translate into work, and on this scale will push our envi- ronment beyond a breaking point.

As such, the issue of whether there is a prospect for mean- ingful change is dependent on the river of supra-individual desire and meaning changing its course, hitting new weirs, creating new pools, and establishing new distributaries. What is needed to divert this torrent is art, images, words, and ideas—the more experimental i. The guarantees of success are as non-existent as our ability to know the future. If the shift in energy pro- duction hits us with its full force, the situation that arises cannot be com- pared to a revolution, it will be a resetting of our civilization, akin to the move from hunter gathering to agriculture.

It should be born in mind that mass society, made up of modern individuals, would not have been possible without fossil fuels. While it goes without saying that the 4. Nordlund , Will it fall apart if the extraneous which they surely will become after the end of the Oil Age. But modern energy input stays ixed? The economy op- ings. Ultimately, all our debt ing tide, geothermal energy, and ission.

A culture based is owed to the sun. Having forgotten this, we pay inter- on subjective individuality is structurally dependent on est in the form of environmental destruction. In other vast amounts of energy, which it consumes entirely sub- words, what lies behind the current inancial crisis is an consciously, in volumes that a human being, left to his energy crisis, a thermodynamic crisis, a solar crisis.

In other words: the subject cannot be sustained ddd through manual labor alone. In order rary capitalism are not ontologically different categories to have the energy to be a subject, to be modern, we in that they are not separate beings or groups of beings.

The modern man, in his current individualized things: the former aims at uncalculating consumption, incarnation, is, quite literally, a fossil brought to life by the latter at the self-preservation of the human subject, the death of the sun. Post peak, there will be within which it exists without seeking to dominate it. On that digs into the very lesh of worldliness. When the the contrary, this mash up of the capitalist and black entirely exceptional circumstance of our un-dead, oil- solar economies has, with few exceptions, derived its powered acceleration is over, the human race along with rather limited instinct for human self-preservation and the lora and fauna will claim their niches anew.

The survival from capitalism and adopted its desire for fren- industrial-scale exploitation of oil and the gradual de- zied wasteful extravagance from the nigredo. Life as we cline in supply have not generated just new experiences, understand it is thus stuck in this vice, leading us to they will change the way we experience things, alter our view the un-human nature of the solar economy in an experience of the experience.

With natural scientists ostensibly rational light. In the black so- treacherous leap to a post-fossil world will be reserved lar economy the only option is to live a life of anal prof- for the arts, philosophy, and everyday life. At its by the photographic image and by oil. A suicidal, extravagant, and hubristic ethos wherever it has been obliterated.

Thus, it is in the very without the desire for self-preservation has no genuine disruption inherent in photography that the disruption prospect of long-term survival. It is only in a union of in the fossil lifestyle can be made visible. It is not my intention here to disparage hedgehogs and sion. But here the symbol is not in any way secondary or other ancient animals that, traditionally, have been referred artiicial or even weaker than reality.

After all, the hubristic belief in progress has others, becomes possible. If new energy technologies fail to offer of economic liberalism in its various forms is perhaps the salvation we are looking for, perhaps some other the ultimate manifestation of this. The manner in which combination of self-indulgence and greedy ingenuity oil has been consumed is so catastrophic precisely be- will present itself. Nihilism is a state in which life lacks meaning. A unique Thus on the one hand, those aspects of our chosen feature of fossil nihilism is its success in plastering over energy source that are inite i.

In this scenario, despair thinks that meaning can, and must, continue! On the other, its structural no longer remains, while hope believes that meaning is aspects extravagance and irrationality have been seen yet to come. The that arranges objects and subjects according to its will reigning dogma of fossil capitalism has reached the end and then commences a single-minded oil-driven ex- of its road and the thermodynamic crisis is being mis- change between the two.

The shortest possible deini- tion for a modern brand of nihilism is forgetting about ddd the sun. This collective amnesia takes two forms: irstly, we have not understood oil for what it really is, a unique The black or white sun cannot be the object of artistic and terrible gift from the sun, and secondly, we have expression or thinking, insofar as it is a pre-requisite for failed to recognize our complete dependence on the both.

The sun is not photosensitive. It is catastrophic in natural world, nourished by the sun. All that remains is its terror, it is too real: a child is told not to stare into the waste, a garish plastic desert. The Copernican revolution ddd cannot yet have even begun if our fossilized state has prevented us from facing up to the full horror of the In the fossil nihilist age, photography acts as a reminder solar economy as the premise of our thinking.

The great of the sun, to which the fossil man can turn to for little black night created by oil is signiicant but the fact of its else than leave to simply expire. Photography helps us existence languishes in a blind spot, invisible to econo- to recognize disruptions in meaning, which have been mists and philosophers alike.

Maybe, the modern ni- forgotten or which are too quick to be visible to the gredo is really needed. Perhaps, even without the black naked eye. In the situation that we currently ind our- solar fossil, man could have found a way to invent other, selves, photography allows the mind to remain in hell perhaps slower and less effective but nevertheless rather without giving in to despair. Instead of waiting for the nifty, methods for creating an environmental disaster.

It morning, we must wake up to the night. Another unique feature of oil is that, without it, we International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook The Foundations of Our Life. Relections about industry. Last modiied October 4, Accessed February 21, directly or indirectly dependent on oil.

Oil and, increasingly, State of the World Helsinki: Gaudeamus Objects on Oil brings to the fore the fossil basis of human experience, economic activity, and industrial- ized societies more widely, and the breaks in our understanding related to this material foundation. Mustarinda studies the cultural and socio-economic structures of society which are widely deined by the vari- ous dimensions of the ecological crisis.

Along the way, the traveler encounters rural and Photomed, Mediterranean Photography Festival, forest areas, water basins, inner-city vegetable gardens, and Sanary-sur-Mer ; and the 13th Istanbul sites of cultural and historical importance such as the Biennial In , his exhibition the new airport, the road leading to the third Bosphorus Shell opened at the gallery that represents him Bridge, industrial and excavation dump sites, and housing —Elipsis Gallery, Istanbul—and he began the areas.

Between the Seas is therefore both a proposal and an walking trail work Between Two Seas. While Shell represents the recent transformation of Is- tanbul, Between Two Seas prioritizes the physical experience over the representational. Archival pigment print by Serkan Taycan.

Courtesy of the artist and Elipsis Gallery, Istanbul. Shell 13 Shell 06 Shell 12 Each second, four million tonnes of plasma undergo fusion to generate incandescent energy. Light is faeces. As it is excreted from the surface of the star, materials on Earth coa- lesce, disintegrate and writhe in agony and ecstasy.

The optimal conditions for life: a narrow gravitational corridor between incineration by the sun and the deadly freeze of deep space. Over the course of mil- lennia, organic matter, consisting of flesh, bones, and bodily fluids, nour- ished by the sun, has sunk to the ocean floor, created pressurised pockets, and gone silent. It took countless lives and immeasurable destruction, pa- tience, and restlessness.

The past years have been the Age of Oil, also known as modernity, a period that will soon be drawing to a close. It is ancient sunlight and, it follows, that all nutrition, photosynthesis, and the majority of energy originate in space. While all previous civilisations relied on the white sun, the black fossil sun dominates our thoroughly modern West- ern existence.

This is to say that modern nihilism is not primarily a spiritual state, rather it has a material basis in the sun, in black and white. There is no moral dis- tinction between the two: both are truly terrible entities and only in excep- tional circumstances, and often purely by coincidence, do they sustain life.

New shale oil discoveries do not alter the Early 17th century European alchemists had a term for this sort of situation. The nigredo symbolizes the sol number of extra years but it will niger, the black sun, under whose scorching heat the alchemist must work, come at the cost of highly intensive often for many years.

Alchemy texts warn that many will never progress past local environmental destruction. There black night. During the nigredo stage, the alchemist ex- is no reason to spare a single thought for our everyday plores the various states of death, examines the process necessities, whether production, logistics, or consump- of death within himself, among his community and in tion-related, as long as our energy supply remains an nature.

As with fossil fuels, the destructive power of the effortless given. Photography, however, can find its way nigredo lies in nature, a subterranean and dangerous en- to these sites of dislocation and bear witness to their tity, entirely separate from the human existence.

But even these photographs must be taken The utter blackness of the nigredo is obliterated by under the light of the black sun, from within the catas- light pollution. With the sun forgotten, the night artifi- trophe. In this sense, every image of contemporary life cially circumvented, the work goes on and our experi- is tarnished by oil and lit by the dark sun.

However, it would appear, that it is in fact possible to ddd sustain life within the nigredo. That it is possible to bear children and grow plants in the light of the black sun. The modern experience would have turned out very different indeed if oil, or another Viewed from the human perspective, the sun is, to all similarly abundant energy source, had not been avail- intents and purposes, eternal.

But the sun also has its able. The length of a solar ern, Western, urban, and thoroughly industrialized way cycle is 11 years. It is not an impossible prospect that the of life. The sort of economic growth we are accustomed fate of the fossil subject might be decided in the course to would also have been an impossible proposition had of the current cycle. Shale oil and other unconven- ing the Maunder minimum from to , for exam- tional sources and methods do not change the bottom ple, sunspots were very rare.

In , EROEI ratios may chiolitis and in the years that followed European crop have stood as high as but even the most optimistic yields plummeted, the Thames often froze in winter and current estimates stand at approximately A political What might a post-fossil photograph look like? If you set pessimist might take that to mean a form of slavery, out to capture the human-nature relationship, whether something that is already a reality in the poor south deteriorating or improving, we must, almost inevitably, where the well-oiled life is already conditional upon do so in the glare of the black sun.

Presently, oil-related hard physical graft. And they are The modern life from the beginning of industrial oil everywhere. After all, our water comes from the tap, our usage onwards is associated with the fantasy of accelera- light from a lamp, our food from the shop, and to get to tion, a child-like faith in limitless growth and the stead- nature, we drive.

The fragmentation and dislocation of fast belief in the feasibility of a universally comfortable life for all. For a few generations, oil delivered this pow- er and lifestyle but in reality what it always had to offer may actually have been the exact opposite. When a life 2. Worldwatch Institute , The estimated EROEI of oil generated from bituminous sands and bitumi- ized itself: humans will hit escape velocity from the cy- nous sand ranges between — Worldwatch Institute , But when the methods, and the quality of the deposits and the extracted oil sand.

Shoe Dryer There is no end to this alchemistic night, no promise of a coming dawn and it is possible to be persuaded that this year-long stretch of exceptional living conditions is, in fact, something normal. On the one hand, oil is a solvent more potent than aqua regia into which all differences, idiosyncrasies, and local quirks melt effortlessly and often almost willingly.

On the other, it is a wedge, an isolating material disruption that separates object from subject and nature from culture. However, if we were to con- sider nature as something that cannot be reduced to a fundamental whole, something that is exposed, sheltered, and punished by the sun, we, in a plan- etary sense, end up with a positive glut of resources.

Instead, our problem is an abundance of energy, since energy will translate into work, and on this scale will push our envi- ronment beyond a breaking point. As such, the issue of whether there is a prospect for mean- ingful change is dependent on the river of supra-individual desire and meaning changing its course, hitting new weirs, creating new pools, and establishing new distributaries. What is needed to divert this torrent is art, images, words, and ideas—the more experimental i.

The guarantees of success are as non-existent as our ability to know the future. If the shift in energy pro- duction hits us with its full force, the situation that arises cannot be com- pared to a revolution, it will be a resetting of our civilization, akin to the move from hunter gathering to agriculture.

It should be born in mind that mass society, made up of modern individuals, would not have been possible without fossil fuels. While it goes without saying that the 4. Nordlund , Will it fall apart if the extraneous which they surely will become after the end of the Oil Age. But modern energy input stays fixed? The economy op- ings. Ultimately, all our debt ing tide, geothermal energy, and fission.

A culture based is owed to the sun. Having forgotten this, we pay inter- on subjective individuality is structurally dependent on est in the form of environmental destruction. In other vast amounts of energy, which it consumes entirely sub- words, what lies behind the current financial crisis is an consciously, in volumes that a human being, left to his energy crisis, a thermodynamic crisis, a solar crisis.

In other words: the subject cannot be sustained ddd through manual labor alone. In order rary capitalism are not ontologically different categories to have the energy to be a subject, to be modern, we in that they are not separate beings or groups of beings. The modern man, in his current individualized things: the former aims at uncalculating consumption, incarnation, is, quite literally, a fossil brought to life by the latter at the self-preservation of the human subject, the death of the sun.

Post peak, there will be within which it exists without seeking to dominate it. On that digs into the very flesh of worldliness. When the the contrary, this mash up of the capitalist and black entirely exceptional circumstance of our un-dead, oil- solar economies has, with few exceptions, derived its powered acceleration is over, the human race along with rather limited instinct for human self-preservation and the flora and fauna will claim their niches anew.

The survival from capitalism and adopted its desire for fren- industrial-scale exploitation of oil and the gradual de- zied wasteful extravagance from the nigredo. Life as we cline in supply have not generated just new experiences, understand it is thus stuck in this vice, leading us to they will change the way we experience things, alter our view the un-human nature of the solar economy in an experience of the experience.

With natural scientists ostensibly rational light. In the black so- treacherous leap to a post-fossil world will be reserved lar economy the only option is to live a life of anal prof- for the arts, philosophy, and everyday life.

At its by the photographic image and by oil. A suicidal, extravagant, and hubristic ethos wherever it has been obliterated. Thus, it is in the very without the desire for self-preservation has no genuine disruption inherent in photography that the disruption prospect of long-term survival. It is only in a union of in the fossil lifestyle can be made visible.

It is not my intention here to disparage hedgehogs and sion. But here the symbol is not in any way secondary or other ancient animals that, traditionally, have been referred artificial or even weaker than reality. After all, the hubristic belief in progress has others, becomes possible. If new energy technologies fail to offer of economic liberalism in its various forms is perhaps the salvation we are looking for, perhaps some other the ultimate manifestation of this.

The manner in which combination of self-indulgence and greedy ingenuity oil has been consumed is so catastrophic precisely be- will present itself. Nihilism is a state in which life lacks meaning. A unique Thus on the one hand, those aspects of our chosen feature of fossil nihilism is its success in plastering over energy source that are finite i. In this scenario, despair thinks that meaning can, and must, continue! On the other, its structural no longer remains, while hope believes that meaning is aspects extravagance and irrationality have been seen yet to come.

The that arranges objects and subjects according to its will reigning dogma of fossil capitalism has reached the end and then commences a single-minded oil-driven ex- of its road and the thermodynamic crisis is being mis- change between the two.

The shortest possible defini- tion for a modern brand of nihilism is forgetting about ddd the sun. This collective amnesia takes two forms: firstly, we have not understood oil for what it really is, a unique The black or white sun cannot be the object of artistic and terrible gift from the sun, and secondly, we have expression or thinking, insofar as it is a pre-requisite for failed to recognize our complete dependence on the both.

The sun is not photosensitive. It is catastrophic in natural world, nourished by the sun. All that remains is its terror, it is too real: a child is told not to stare into the waste, a garish plastic desert. The Copernican revolution ddd cannot yet have even begun if our fossilized state has prevented us from facing up to the full horror of the In the fossil nihilist age, photography acts as a reminder solar economy as the premise of our thinking. The great of the sun, to which the fossil man can turn to for little black night created by oil is significant but the fact of its else than leave to simply expire.

Photography helps us existence languishes in a blind spot, invisible to econo- to recognize disruptions in meaning, which have been mists and philosophers alike. Maybe, the modern ni- forgotten or which are too quick to be visible to the gredo is really needed. Perhaps, even without the black naked eye.

In the situation that we currently find our- solar fossil, man could have found a way to invent other, selves, photography allows the mind to remain in hell perhaps slower and less effective but nevertheless rather without giving in to despair. Instead of waiting for the nifty, methods for creating an environmental disaster. It morning, we must wake up to the night.

Another unique feature of oil is that, without it, we International Energy Agency. World Energy Outlook The Foundations of Our Life. Reflections about industry. Last modified October 4, Accessed February 21, directly or indirectly dependent on oil.

Oil and, increasingly, State of the World Helsinki: Gaudeamus Objects on Oil brings to the fore the fossil basis of human experience, economic activity, and industrial- ized societies more widely, and the breaks in our understanding related to this material foundation. Mustarinda studies the cultural and socio-economic structures of society which are widely defined by the vari- ous dimensions of the ecological crisis.

Mustarinda organizes exhibitions and events all over Finland as well as abroad, and publishes the Mustarinda magazine, issues comments and orga- nizes courses and workshops. The starting point for the founding of Mustarinda was our discovery of the global constriction of ecological and cultural diversity.

A narrow eco- nomic goal-setting has taken room from a more diverse development. Original natural environments and local cultures will become increasingly important in the future. The cultural traditions of Kainuu and Viena, which are strongly linked to the local nature, provide a fascinating starting point also for new art and research. Energy must be produced somehow to heat up the studios and bedrooms; snow has to be removed in order to get into and out of the house; foodstuffs need to be gathered either from the forest, from the garden, or purchased from the nearest shop 25 kilometers away.

Questions about subsistence are obvious in a very different way here than they would be in a city. The It is not meaningful to solve these questions on the scarcity and abundance of resources touches all societal level of the individual.

For instance, workable organic activities and the conditions of all human actions. It waste processing and efficient transportation arrange- cannot be assumed through a single political interpreta- ments need coordination and continuity. We need to tion. We need to Living in a peaceful and remote country such as Fin- renew infrastructure also on a wider scale. Mustarinda is land, we may forget the fact that large areas around the working on the production and distribution of biogas, world are headed towards or have already reached an and on the construction of communal wind farms in environment- or resource-based conflict.

Changes in the Kainuu. In these projects, we do not only renew concrete living environment, such as warming, storms, draughts, structures, but also communal practices and ownership. It is estimated that is about the construction of a new kind of concept of during the next two decades, environmental crises will humanity and philosophy of life. We will not be spared from the radical effects ddd of mass migrations and subsequent conflicts, not even in Finland.

When we were invited to the biennial, we started four The ability of the field of culture and art to anticipate artistic research processes—archive, architecture, forest, the future may sometimes appear astonishingly weak. Last year, three books ports and scenarios to an experiential level, and open were published in Finland, which form a steady founda- our eyes to the changes present in this moment.

The name Mustarinta or the meanings of scarcity, and opens up the politics of spelled Mustarinda with a d as noted in old maps is an scarcity. Also Koli hill phere of social action and self-understanding in Finland. Our cient bear cult. We are facing an inevitable change, which is more cultural-philosophical than tech- nological-economic in nature. Environmental art and research, in which human be- ings are seen both as dependent on and a part of their environment, will lose their meaning as separate spheres R EFER ENCES of action and will grow to be a part of all artistic and scientific activity.

Niukkuuden maailmassa. Helsinki: Into-Kustannus, Energia ja kokemus. Photograph by Antti Majava. Many people see a hidden winking smiley be found at outdoors. What kind of connection does this nature are the attitudes of our time, as science studies scholar have to the nature one sees from the cab of a harvester? Bruno Latour has noted Latour ; see also Morton Or with the nature that lives in us in bacteria form? We assume commercialized ways of life and What do these natures have in common with the nature buy status objects under the cover of slight self-irony.

It is as if we have become stuck in an Information on different kinds of animate and inani- endless language game and are happy just to stand by mate objects, which our living environment is made out when, during a short period of industrialization, hu- of, is available in unforeseen quantity. We know that a mankind burns away all the fossil fuels which have be- range of diverse creatures is vital for human existence.

Despite this, we leave all these wonderful and necessary The ways in which we consume natural resources objects in the background when we go to work, to the and treat non-humans show that the world along with shops, or back home. The table we produce for the its objects is lost to us. The foodstuffs bought from Ian Bogost have further developed, demands a change the shops do not seem to have anything to do with the to this situation. According to this theory, we need to creatures such products are made out of.

The causalities stop and think about the basis of coexistence—the being between everyday production, consuming, and nature of different objects. In order to better understand the have been blurred into near invisibility. The purpose of such tools is to build all. A human individual is, on an onto- ment of Western philosophy on the one hand and the logical level, an object among other objects.

Alongside object- are autonomous, and cannot be reduced to anything oriented philosophy we use archive photographs; in else, for instance nature, energy, matter, or flow. As a their topics and representational methods we see con- branch of philosophical thought, object-orientedness nections to Finnish ways of understanding nature, and is ontological thinking; its starting point is objects in the use of natural resources.

Our inspiration has been themselves: there are bolts, black holes, dollars, seagulls, the special quality of photographs as objects: they simul- quarks, shares, nuclear power stations… Lists of this kind taneously exhibit concrete objects and practices, and are a method for the figuring out of the bits and causal ways of understanding and representation, and yet also relations which make up our reality. Humans are one of exist as concrete objects in relation to their technical- those objects in this brutally honest philosophy which material birth.

Existence renders objects equal, although ogy and the photographs and related ecological-onto- their being may be different, and they may work and logical ponderings we develop an analytical framework affect other objects in different ways. Bogost , If this challenge is difficult Around and even within us humans there exists a mani- to accept at first, it is important to remember that the fold group of objects.

Their existence does not depend raising of human beings as subjects above objects is on whether we happen to take them as targets of our only a historically established point of view. The nature and the climate that we objects and forces Latour , — Bruno Latour think we know are transforming from one state to an- emphasizes the contradiction at the heart of rationalism: other, which is still unknown to us.

Through the devel- one must believe in action without agency idem. Although countless naturecultures prove the con- found objects and things which transcend our temporal trary to be true, we hold on to this paradoxical world- and conceptual understanding, and threaten our exist- view because of its continuity and stability idem.

Things seem to go our way when we make believe and global unrestrained capitalism cannot be persuaded that we are in charge of everything; in the light of the to remain in the background of the rational human sub- belief in technological development we consider our- ject, to be steered objects.

They have their own influen- selves in control of an endless supply of resources as tial existence. Morton b, 38— In this way we form a relationship to passive non- In object-oriented philosophy, the world is seen from human nature from our own point of view only. Our the point of view of the ontological properties of ob- relationship with nature is defined solely as a circular jects.

First of all, objects are perceived as withdrawing. One cannot know other objects as such, in and consequently perceive the nonhuman world and their entirety; their core is ever receding. Objects show their own work through these conceptual and physical themselves to others in certain guises, in certain lights. The circle is perfect and working, and the We are ever making interpretations and representations non-human has remained silent.

Even the most thorough descrip- sion, in which objects behave in more or less predicta- tion of a stone, be it artistic or scientific, is not a stone. Why is this illusion coming apart just now? We can feel and smell a stone and experi- porally and locally in the world of the Anthropocene. A human ceptually isolated objects and looks at reality from the can never have a direct access to other objects; we can point of view of their uniqueness and irreducibility, it only approach them indirectly, for instance through does not deny their interactions or relationships.

Con- photographs and their interpretations. Timothy Morton calls rectly. Another important ontological quality has to do this kind of collection of objects a mesh Morton , with causality. Due to the withdrawing quality of ob- 28— It is a web-like tapestry of entities with no hier- jects, causality takes place in a sensory or aesthetic di- archy, edges, or centre.

In object-oriented philosophy, mension Morton a. When a harvester makes a such conceptualizations of the interactive relationships clearing, it affects different objects in different ways. If often have a background of environmental ethics: the we stay with the mechanical concept of causality, such diversity of life and the biological relationships related as we are taught in secondary school, it is hard to under- to it have a value independent of humans see e.

Its a, 23—24; Bogost , 7—9. Each forest animal feels and interprets differently the noises of the machine and the forces it affects the The knowledge of natural objects has changed over the earth with—which may carry far. An entire tree meets centuries according to various technological-economic, the machine differently than a tree stump. In the neigh- cultural, and political circumstances. Today, in the Fin- borhood of the future clearing, the harvester will per- land of lakes and forests, we are in a situation where the haps cause anger, whereas the owner of the forest in scenery is dominated, particularly south of Lapland, by question will be delighted of future income.

For its deforested clearings and fields of trees born in nurs- operator, the harvester creates a special environment, eries. Forestry without clearcutting has for a long time which in its modern manifestation wraps extreme per- been seen as non-profitable, although its possibilities formance around a computer-like control panel. According to the Because of the withdrawal of objects, and the sensory latest, multidisciplinary forest research, Finnish forestry or aesthetic nature of their causal relationships, object- is not only unsustainable both ecologically and sceni- oriented philosophy has generally abandoned the idea cally, it is also less profitable than continuous cover for- of a totality which would bring all objects together.

The estry e. In the 17th century, the scarcity of forest-based re- Objects create a space and time of their own; outside sources was seen crucial in the economic development these there is no background or next dimension which of Western Europe Kuisma , The role of forests would put them into context. Still, the objects together does not exist, and objects themselves point of view of one logger on the state of forests could do not form any kind of constellations, groups, or net- be geographically very limited: they were not necessar- works; in an ontological sense they exist separate from ily aware of the national or international situation.

Now- each other as detached points, as if on a two-dimensional adays, at least in the industrialized countries, everyone level Bryant a, — In the same way, Timothy has access to fresh and extensive research on the state of Morton denies the existence of nature as some kind of ecosystems, even on a global scale. At the same time, the collective system. Single non-human objects from cells connections between natural resources and consuming and viruses to scorpions and deserts do affect each have largely been lost.

Our belief in the fact that any raw other, but there is no higher level of being, or self-regu- material can be replaced with another, and that there latory, or humanly controlled natural totality Morton are no limits to the availability of such materials, has ; Morton Thus we need to pay attention to spread terribly wide.

The driver of the vehicle is in works which transcend objects. Technological mediation drawn essence and its appearance which opens up to may have always been present on some level, but here another object in a unique way. Objects are profound- the question is also of scale and qualitative differences: ly strange to each other, and in fact strange to them- axe, saw, chainsaw, and harvester are experientially dif- selves as well.

Photograph by Mikko Savolainen. Over the long process of goal of which has been defined as the efficient alloca- metamorphosis, the tree is seen sometimes through tion of resources, treats the emissions born of produc- technical requirements, sometimes through economic tion and consumption as externalities—something goals. A top-level manager does not even necessarily dif- which touches only the so-called third party, not the ferentiate between different products and the raw ma- buyer or the seller—and thus discounts them.

GDP, terials they require; they apply the leadership models which serves as an indicator of economic growth, does they have learned regardless of the field, and rely on the not take a stand on what is being produced, or what the expertise of their employees.

Such people read forests positive or negative effects of this production are; it mainly in the form of standardized profit indicators. Although economic questions—questions viduals or organizations can be seen clearly on societal about resources—famously define modern politics, and political levels.

Society is steered by the goal of eco- they have been fundamentally disconnected from their nomic growth, although at the same time the objective material bases. In The car park sign in the above image refers simulta- political discussions, the attention is not drawn to any neously to a past and future scenery: the past forest is particular production or consumption: rather, all pro- still almost visible, and the future progress with its tar- ductive activity is handled using the same hypernyms.

According to a review Conspicuous consumption, which rolls in the pleasure article published in Nature Barnosky et al. These areas have not been designed with the requirements of di- verse natural objects in mind; they are almost exclusively based on mono- cultures. When intertwined natural objects are forced apart, their condi- tions for living grow narrower.

The article states that we should increase our literacy of early warning signs. A photograph can help us see around us signs we would not otherwise notice. There is a constant battle over the analysis of these signs: an increasing understanding of the coexistence of objects challenges dominant conceptions of what development or pro- gress really are. Alongside the practices of cultural representation and recep- tion, and the human actions which repeat and mould them, an image of an animal does and gives other things, too.

It is typical of crows, like all birds and vertebrates, to ob- serve their environment by turning their heads to see, to hear, to smell… This unique movement of a living creature has been captured on film: the life that went on in a succession of moments remains in the image just as it happened. The crow has looked both into the room and out of the window.

What a human is trying to say with or understood by humans. The phenomenon is similar a photograph is only a part of what is seen in an image. The existence and worlds of animals resist capture, The question is about the areas of meaning-making and which moves human observation and thinking to new making a difference, in which a human is at best a par- directions Bryant b; Broglio , xvi—xxi and A crow and chemicals are all doing their own work.

The blurry jects. They are concrete places in which plants, fungi, head movement turns metaphorical, expressing con- and animals communicate within and between species fusion about which side of the glass the bird really be- with signs and ways Homo sapiens cannot comprehend.

Pictures of animals are always a part of the non-human As animals that we have moved to the area of culture, sphere of power, not only in the technical-material and who still remain original dwellers of the forest, sense, but also in the ecological-organistic sense: pho- crows point directly to the conceptual borders of the tographs contain traces of such forms of life whose ges- forest.

As a conceptualization of a specific realm of real- tures and worlds we do not fully understand. Thus, forest nowadays means game, But why is the presence of an animal in a photograph a raw materials, mushrooms and berries and associated banality—why is it hard to say anything critical about it, earning opportunities, and experiential or aesthetic without the analysis of cultural practices and meanings?

You are not supposed not-yet-meaningful and meaningful that is intertwined to ask questions in a forest. Hu- Besides cultural forest constructions, there exist real mans are used to thinking themselves and other people areas composed of the organic and the inorganic, the as the only beings creating meaning in the world Bryant realms of non-humans—those areas in which humans a, 20— Our reality is the result of human activity, are put when they enter a forest.

It is exactly this sheer both conceptually and concretely: all meanings are per- concreteness of forests and forest creatures and pro- ceived and established by us, and the environment is full cesses with its several consequences and connections of the traces of our own hands and products. Non- that makes us start again all discussions, questions, and human world is the not-yet-touched, not-yet-interpret- wonderings about forests.

Humans should also remem- ed—it is an empty basis which we will first conceptual- ber that there is always someone to meet us in a forest. Thinking about animals meeting us in the forest not The banality or emptiness of meaning connected to only reminds us of the foundation of object-oriented an animal presence has also to do with the dominant philosophy—the equality of objects—but it also empha- Western thinking of animals as objects which lack the sizes the ethical dimensions of ecological questions.

The depths of human mind and experience. He strives to analyze b, 20— In art, the contacts to ecological interpretations of object-oriented ontology animals and animalities through different materials and is that all objects have an equal right to exist. Photograph by Risto Lounema. Con- sequently, the social philosopher Will Kymlicka and the animal rights philosopher Sue Donaldson have suggested that the natural environments inhabited by wild animals should be regarded as sovereign states to which the native animals have inviolable rights ibid.

Humans are, to a great extent, creatures of habit. If only scientists strive to gain new information on natural objects without others assuming the project, they will have a difficult, even impossible, job in breaking down the walls of habit as they report the results of their work. In addition, scientific methods main- ly produce a rather limited, quantitatively oriented understanding, which puts aside the experiential dimensions of objects and their interactions.

Object-oriented philosophy, which sees causalities as taking place in an aesthetic dimension, raises art and the study of art into a central position in societal discussion and change. Art thus becomes a testing of causalities, a setting of objects in experimental relations of cause-and-effect. When we strive to understand the world from the point of view of other objects, we are not only thinking analytically and categorically, but are also experi- entially tuning ourselves to these objects Morton a.

Contrary to the traditional humanist understanding of humans and art, from the object ontological point of view, it seems that art disturbs human systems of sig- nification. In addition to showing objects in a new light, artworks resist complete and final analyses and all kinds of simplifications which are vital to everyday communication Bryant b, 24— A work of art can crack open the illusion of habit which shrouds the strange encounters within the object world—encounters which may prove fateful also for human life.

Bogost, Ian. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, Broglio, Ron. Surface Encounters. Thinking with Animals and Art. Bryant, Levi R. The Democracy of Objects. Brooklyn, New York: Punctum Books, Donaldson, Sue and Will Kymlicka. A Political Theory of Animal Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, Harman, Graham. The Quadruple Object. Winchester: Zero Books, Jalonen et al.

Helsinki: Gaudeamus, Kuisma, Markku. Suomen poliittinen taloushistoria — Helsinki: Siltala, Latour, Bruno. From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern. New Literary History 41 Summer : — Morton, Timothy. Ecology without Nature. Rethinking Environmental Aesthetics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, The Ecological Thought.

Realist Magic: Objects, Ontology, Causality. Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, b. In many of the pictures, forest nature is treated as a distinct entity: its inhabitants and users are not shown in the photographs. They wanted to see what the archived photo- graphs are like and what they tell us about how natural resources are used in Finland, what the attitudes of Finns are towards wild animals, and what they think about nature and our place in it.

The goal of archival re- A photographic archive is an archive par excellence, be- search is often to discover a gaze or an agenda that cause photographs serve both as documentary evidence would reveal a political ideology, whether that of the and as archival records of events. Since every photograph photographer, the commissioning client, or the creator is a priori an archival object, the camera is quite literally of the archive. However, in the case of the archives of an archival machine.

Photographs as well as archives are the Finnish Museum of Photography, to take an exam- associated with the same, frequently challenged illusion ple, its formation over the course of six decades has of objectivity and evidentiary force. Since the mission of the thereby spawning a mania to take photographs—and museum is to preserve the many forms of photographic accumulate them. It can be found already in early 19th tors as the limits of storage space and resources for pro- century correspondence between Louis Daguerre and cessing.

This is the view that curator plays an important role. The expenditure of natural and art historian Okwui Enwezor espouses in his text resources and energy required for the physical and elec- Archive Fever, named after a famous text on archives by tronic production and preservation of photographs Jacques Derrida Enwezor , This awareness of physi- As a consequence of the research orientation of con- cal resources is—and should be—integral to everything temporary art, the attention of artists has come to bear we produce, consume, and maintain.

The sion, it is also a tool for the documentation of external subject has been explored by many art theorists, includ- reality, and as such it is vital for collecting and assessing ing Allan Sekula, Hal Foster, and Benjamin Buchloch, information concerning the impacts of conspicuous often inspired by the ideas of Derrida or Michel Fou- consumption, whether psychological or ecological. At the same time, however, new conceptual hier- archies have been posited by Enwezor and others.

Enwe- The owners and users of archives have the power to zor discusses archives as places where the artist or the bring archives to life or to ignore them to death. By the researcher rescues materials or liberates them from the same token, Okwui Enwezor sees the archive as a place chains of the archives through artistic or scientific prac- that enables forgetting and oblivion as well as remem- tice, respectively.

Archive professionals have posed the bering and regeneration Enwezor , Although question of how the critical theory of archives in con- the fonds in the Finnish Museum of Photography ar- temporary art and art theory links to the practices and chives are varied and allow many different ways to ex- choices in actual archival work.

On the other hand, this being the Age bly, if unwittingly, directs the gaze in certain ways, onto of Google, the researchers also expected to be able to certain objects. The cataloguing and digitizing of public first. The choices are difficult and often frustrat- photographs requires an enormous amount of effort ing.

For instance, a fonds may be prioritized because it and labor. Only after digitization is complete can the is in danger of being lost due to ongoing chemical images be described and paired with keywords, that is, changes that would make it irretrievable otherwise.

Mil- organized according to a linguistic system. Archives also contain anonymous material the The concept of the archive and notions related to it provenance and date of accession of which can no lon- have changed radically in the age of the internet. The ger be traced. The ready within the archive, where they are potentially presence of Youtube, one of the largest repositories of available to be used in any way at all.

Photographs can visual records in our time that amasses new imageries be regarded as historical documents or as aesthetic ob- without control or design, directs us in a new way to jects. It sivu and Lummaa focused on a tightly defined area, thereby confronts institutional archives with new ques- because the agenda of the exhibition was to explore no- tions: is an institutional archive the actor whose materi- tions of and attitudes toward nature.

Instead of aestheti- als we are justified in expecting to present historical cally impressive pictures, they wanted to find out about and contextual understanding, which is then reflected connections between the photographs and scientific in the collections maintained by the archive?

Derrida , Both the archivist and the user are The core idea of the project is to pinpoint real phenom- afflicted by the fever. In Archive Fever Derrida links ar- ena from the body of discourse analysis and contextuali- chiving and the need to study archives with our aware- zation.

The impact of a photograph cannot be exhaust- ness of death, even the death drive. The archive is where ed with meanings associated with its origin or manner we search feverishly for something that is lost, some- of presentation. Timothy Morton likes to tell the story thing elusive. From among the countless pictures of his of a dinosaur whose fossilized footprint was discovered mother, Barthes too searches feverishly for one which by a paleontologist sixty-five million years after it was would reveal her true nature.

At the same time, he em- made. The dinosaur will affect us photograph is this catastrophe. Old photographs are not merely documents of a past or illustrations of a text, they can be present—both materially and through their content—in our time as well.

Camera Lucida: reflections on photography. The archive is often associated with ideas about perfect New York: Hill and Wang, Allan Sekula sees Derrida, Jacques. Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Archive Fever: Uses of the Document in of capitalism, bureaucracy, and positivism, on the one Contemporary Art. It seems a fruitful idea to regard the archive as a Sekula, Allan.

Photography between natural resource, forever unfinished and unpredictable, labour and capital. New York: Routledge, Image by Tarmo Herranen. Until then, buying and selling homes had been facilitated by real estate brokers, working on commission and charging a handsome, standard fee of 4. This was all going to be changed by the aggressively launched startup Igglo; an online brokerage that eliminated the need for brokers as actual biological persons, and which promised to slash its fee by more than half from the industry standard.

Whereas old broker wisdom advocated seduction via personal charisma and exploiting, for example, culturally coded olfactory associations by bak- ing in an apartment one hour before its presentation to potential buyers, Igglo understood the logic of the rapidly changing image economy under- girded by the concomitant rise of social media and mobile computing.

This caused immediate public uproar: both ten- ants of social housing and owners of private houses found their homes listed as potentially purchasable real estate alongside churches, schools, libraries, and publicly owned, historically valuable edifices. Yet what Igglo did was nothing more than unveil a condition already fully in existence: the com- plete integration of the disposition of housing with that of the market.

This phenomenon has been a major contributor to the financialization of households: in other words, our economy of debt is also driven by the image of housing. Aureli and Tattara locate it in the superfluous layers of design-veneer and the production of fake diversity that mask the generic, common nature of housing as shelter for the human animal.

We, however, would like to suggest that the image economy of housing has acquired a new pattern recognition capability and correlates with the image of liquidity in an in- creasingly isomorphic pattern. In other words, the home has become both a site and form of production.

Or, to put it differently, the home itself, as well as the forms of life it fosters, have been made productive. Airbnb hosts rent their unoccupied living space and other short-term lodgings to guests; online auction vendors maintain a constant flow of things in and out. Some open up their domestic life to an online audience by fixing a voyeur cam in their apartment and getting on with household chores while participating in a sex chat for money. Others participate in the lucrative cot- tage industry of cultivating legal or illegal cash crops.

The society of home- owners also monitors and manipulates what happens around their roofs and walls: the development of the living area, the weathering of the build- ing, the rising of sea level and its effect on the view from the apartment… In speculating with their home and its contents on the market, one is constantly at work.

Because they are so intensely consumed, the manage- ment of homes becomes fanatic, their maintenance a full-time job. What if it did not adhere to national borders, or structure itself around an artificial notion of familiarity? Today, houses for things dot the fringes of large cities—our debt-driven economies have necessitated the construction of a self-storage urbanism to house the surplus of our material accumulation.

Instead of subjecting our possessions to negative interest in storage, why not 1. Aureli, Vittorio and Martino simply store ourselves? Instead of curating mausoleums to our own lifestyles, Tattara. Dogma: 11 Projects. London: liquefy all there is to be liquefied in the homes we currently inhabit and re- AA Publications, Whitehead, Gregory. Disruption Begins at Home by Martti Kalliala and Jenna Sutela explores the image of liquidity in relation to home ownership. The work consists of an essay and a custom home trading station, as designed in collaboration with PWR studio.

Photograph by Ilkka Halso. In my pho- tographs, control over nature has acquired a concrete form. The elements of nature have been rethought and have, for logistical purposes, been packed into modules that are easier to handle. The whole of nature is stored in a gigantic warehouse complex and the most common types of nature, from soil and flora to fauna can be easily assembled into working ecosys- tems.

Has nature been evacuated to await better times, or has it been simplified into merchandise and absurd tableaux? He has exhibited his works in private and group exhibitions all around the world. In , the been taken advantage of in their designs. There are no Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change windows to look out of: if there happens to be a glass was founded by the UN, and NASA researcher wall, it has been taped shut with lurid advertisements.

James Hansen testified before the US Congress that the The markets resemble—both inside and out—those climate is rapidly warming because of human actions. In Asian manufacturing plants whence their goods come. In there were three hypermarkets in Finland. There are over new premacy of pure feeling in creative art. To the Suprema- S-Markets, the average size of which is estimated to be tist the visual phenomena of the objective world are, in 1, square meters and their height 5 meters.

There are themselves, meaningless; the significant thing is feeling, ABC service stations, which on average are square as such, quite apart from the environment in which it meters in area and 4 meters in height. All these spaces is called forth. Some nature exists. I want to When including all of the spaces built to cater for create instead of that nature, a Suprematist nature, build retail after , the growth of the entire area can be pursuant to laws of Suprematism. Over the past twen- has become everyday mainstream thinking.

We do not ty-five years, for an average town of 30, inhabitants, need art in hypermarkets, because they are in themselves approximately 32, square meters and , cubic manifestations of suprematist art. Our society, economic meters of hypermarket space has been built. On top of system, and industrial production are being planned in these figures one can add the area required for parking the spirit of suprematism with no interest in the qualities and other traffic arrangements.

Since humankind and limitations of the natural system which maintains has consumed half of all of the oil ever used. Life and its goals have become mere abstractions. Nowadays human existence takes place mainly in huge halls, in various office, shopping, restaurant, gym, 1. Malevich, Kasimir.

In these 2. Lodder, Cristina. You can set the Google Earth view to a height of about a hundred kilometers and let the im- age move slowly across the surface of the earth. Outside the walls of shopping centers, discount stores, factories, and homes there is no forest or nature: only more discount stores, parking lots, and motorways. Nature and culture are outmoded concepts for describing the scenery around us, and the way it develops.

What do good suprematists do when the concrete reality around them turns suprematist? They will not notice it. Suprematists are not interested in the environment, not even in the suprematist environment. They will keep looking for ways to express the purely artistic visions inside their heads.

When the suprematist project is almost complete, nature is an idealistic abstraction, instead of boringly concrete. This situation again arouses the in- terest of the suprematist. Thus begins the last phase of suprematism: the ide- alisation, abstraction, and finally the destruction of the concept of nature.

The customers have come to see furniture, accessories, and interior design ideas. They do not notice the play—and even if they do, they do not under- stand what is going on. IKEA is supposed to be a new self-directed and participatory theatre with expensive tickets. Instead of watching other people and their stories on stage, or on the small or big screen, people turn their own lives into a per- formance. One can go on with the play as long as it is amusing, and afterwards the script, roles, and settings can be refreshed.

A home is a picture of a home. Outside the home there is a picture of nature. Real nature, climate, and the ancient forests of Karelia are appurte- nances waiting for action. The ancient forest turns into boards of chipboard and glulam, and further into consumer culture.

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