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Increase in exchange rate will make goods more expensive to foreign countries. Taxation is the source of revenue for government. It influences public spending on consumer and capital goods by increasing or decreasing the level of disposable income for private sector.
Conversely, decrease in taxation results in increased disposable income for spending. Disposable income is the earnings remaining after meeting all liabilities. Level of spending influences demand for goods or services and prices of goods or services. If demand exceeds in relation to supply then prices of goods or services arises inflation.
Conversely, if demand lacks in relation to supply then prices of goods or services reduces deflation. Government spending can be used to reduce the economic imbalance between rich and poor by providing basic goods or services to society at subsidised or free of charge. Formula: accasupport.
Formula: Government aim is to equal aggregate demand and aggregate supply at a level where workforce is fully employed. Full employment is one of the objectives of the macroeconomic policy of government. Confidence is the expectation of future stability and growth of economic activities. Confidence among firms makes them invest more money in the business. Confidence depends on expectation of political, environmental, employment level, inflation, demand, expected future conditions etc.
Government can increase demands for goods or services through fiscal policy taxation and government spending and monetary policy exchange rates, interest rates and money supply. This can be done by making legislations and providing policing services. To promote maximum economic growth all the resources labour, materials, money and machine in an economy should be fully employed.
Resources can be used more efficiently by provision of training and use of advanced technology. Financing decisions depend on the cost of using finance such as interest rate. If interest rate will rise individual and firms will reduce their borrowings and individual will consume less and firms will abandon their investment projects, which were previously attractive. As investment projects will reduce, demand for goods or services of suppliers to the firm will reduce, which lead to decrease in aggregate demand.
As investment projects will be undertaken, demand for goods or services of suppliers to the firm will increase, which lead to increase in aggregate demand. Exchange rates can impact balance of payment import versus export. Adverse balance of payments makes government to borrow foreign exchange for repayment.
Exchange rate need to be stable. Volatility in exchange rate increases risk of foreign exchange gains or losses and leads to increase in cost of Hedging Wide fluctuation in exchange rate also discourages investment by foreign firms in a country. It increases the risk of foreign exchange gain or losses in assets of the firms when assets are translated in their home currency. Inflation results in reduced purchasing power of money. It is because demand is allowing the use of economic resources labour, capital, natural resources and machinery to its full capacity.
Increase in prices inflation is considered as an indication of full employment of resources. Prices are increased to take the advantage of excess demand by providing goods or services to people that are able to pay more for limited goods or services. Households require more money to continue consuming same quantity and quality of goods or services. Households with limited income pension, government relief etc have to limit their consumption.
Thus, inflation results in reduced standard of living. Businesses having sound assets may enjoy capital gains on its asset. Similarly, businesses having greater liabilities with enjoy economic profits on repayment. As the money borrowed will have lesser value purchasing power when making repayment. Inflation has impact on other objectives of economic policy also.
Inflation will lead to depreciation of exchange rates. Exchange rate depreciation will make imports expensive for a home country and exports cheaper for foreign countries. Expensive imports will result in less demand for imported goods and cheaper exports will result in more demand for goods to export. This will make balance of payment favourable. In times of high inflation, people tend to invest their earnings as earlier as possible. Because keeping money in form of cash will erode the purchasing power of their earnings.
High inflation leads to uncertainty about future economic wellbeing for individuals and firms. Individual tends consume less to save money for the future. Inflation has some additional drawbacks as well. More time have to spend on revising budgets and selling prices for goods or services.
This will put additional cost burden on firms. Customers have to face frequently new prices, which forces them comparing price again and again. In times of high inflation, financial figures have little meaning in evaluating performance of managers and entire organization, which makes financial and resource allocating decisions difficult and less meaningful. Rate of unemployment is determined by dividing unemployed labours with total labours.
Crime rates and illiteracy increases with the increase in unemployment rate. However, employment legislation has given some protection to labours by implementing minimum wage rate requirement. As the level of unemployment increases, bargaining power of employer also increase in comparison with employees.
This is put strain on business profitability and increase competition on the grounds of prices rather than quality among businesses. Quality may deteriorate to produce goods or services at reduced prices to attract price sensitive consumers. Unemployment for long period will result in loss of skill due to lack of work available to retain level of skill.
Loss of skilled workforce is the loss of human capital to the country. Surplus results where total exports exceeds total imports. Deficit results where total imports exceeds total exports. It results in increased price. Supply cannot be increased using domestic factors of production men, machine, material, money.
Prices tend to remain constant or fall. Diagram: Boom Recession accasupport. Demand, prices and employment level falls and at their bottom. Businesses tend to shut down and investors lose their confidence in the market. If recession continues for long period time, it may turn in depression. However, government intervention and technological changes can rescue in situation. Demand, prices, employment level all increases and reaches at peak.
Businesses launches new products and investors have optimistic view of the future economic growth. Recovery is generally considered a slower process than recession. Working capital is the blood of any organization without it cannot continue its operations regardless of how much fixed assets are owned by the organization. Working capital management has two main objectives. Business must be profitable in the short term to add shareholder value in the long term. Failure to meet day-to-day expenses can force organization into dissolution or liquidation by the creditors.
Hence, without survival there will be no wealth maximizing opportunities available. Profitable organization may not have enough cash to day-to-day liabilities. It is due to the application of accrual accounting concept to arrive at profit for the year for financial reporting purpose. Favourable performance at one objective inevitably leads to adverse performance at other objective.
Example: Maintaining higher cash balance will result in loss of sales to customers. It is due to cash is not used for producing or purchasing accasupport. Effective working capital management depends on achieving a balance between these two objectives. Working capital is fund required to finance trading activities organization. Trading activities can be payment of wages to workers, purchasing goods and selling for profit etc. Working capital is as important for organizations as blood for human body.
Working capital is excess of current assets over current liabilities. Formula: Or accasupport. Efficiency of working capital depends on efficient control over elements of working capital as above. We will need working capital cash for ten days to meet day to day trading expenses between 10 days.
This need can be fulfilled through personal savings or raising finance. We will have surplus cash for 5 days after settling all liabilities. Surplus cash can be invested elsewhere to earn interest income. Therefore, longer working capital cycle requires more cash and cost of raising cash to finance working capital will erode profitability.
Even, if personal savings are used to finance working capital it involves opportunity cost because of not being able to earn interest by investing it elsewhere. Diagram: Credit purchase or Trade payables Credit sales or Trade receivables accasupport. Trade receivable balance given in the balance sheet is taken as accasupport. Similarly, decrease in trade receivable level decrease working capital.
If we assume credit sales are made as constant rate, then increase in trade receivable turnover in days increases trade receivables level and working capital requirement. Similarly, decrease in trade receivable turnover in days decreases trade receivables level and working capital requirement.
Trade receivable turnover depends on credit term offered by organization and effectiveness of credit control system. Trade receivable turnover in days is 40 days. Required: Calculate the change in trade receivable level if customers would have taken 45 days on average to pay their debts. To find trade receivables level or amount, we can manipulate the equation as follows: accasupport. It is because of increase in trade receivable turnover from 40 to 45 days.
Inventory balance given in the balance sheet is taken as representative of balance of inventory held at any point in time during the accounting period. Increase in inventory levels increases working capital. Similarly, decease in inventory level decreases working capital. If we assume inventory is purchased at constant rate, then increase in inventory turnover in days will lead to increase in inventory levels and working capital requirement.
Similarly, decrease in inventory turnover in days will lead to decrease in inventory levels and working capital requirement. Inventory turnover in days is 30 days. Required: Calculate the change in inventory level if inventory is sold to customer after 25 days from the date of purchase. To find inventory level or amount, we can manipulate the equation as follows accasupport. It is because of decrease in inventory turnover from 30 to 25 days. Inventory is converted to trade receivables 5 days earlier.
Trade payable balance given in the balance sheet is taken as representative of balance owed to customers at any point in time during the accounting period. Decrease in trade payable level increases working capital. Similarly, increase in trade payable level decreases working capital. If we assume credit purchases are made at constant rate, then increase in trade payable turnover in day increase trade payable level and decrease working capital requirement. Similarly, decrease in trade payable turnover in days decrease trade payable level and working capital requirement.
Account trade payables turnover in days is 50 days. Required: Calculate the change in trade payable level if trade payable is sold to customer after 60 days from the date of purchase. It is because of increase in trade payable turnover from 50 to 60 days. Trade payable has inverse relationship with working capital.
Increase in trade payable leads to decrease in working capital requirement. However, Trade receivables and inventory has direct relationship with working capital. Increase in trade receivables and inventory leads to increase in working capital requirement. It is used to makeup shortfall in working capital requirement. Using current liabilities for financing working capital needs may work well for increasing profitability and it will deteriorate liquidity of the organization.
Following ratios is calculated for determining liquidity position of the organization. Example: Trade payable turnover suggests how often suppliers demand their payment. We will have less time to arrange for payment. Trade receivable turnover suggests how often customers pay us. If customers pay us more often, then low levels of current assets will suffice. We can arrange cash for payment to supplier in lesser time. Formula: Inventory is excluded as it takes more time than other current assets to be converted into cash.
Inventory is distant from cash in that it first has to be converted into receivables before it is converted into cash. An effective credit policy should consider following elements: accasupport. It means those customers who are reasonably likely to settle their debts within due date. Quality of credit analysis depends on the source and quality of information used to assess customer creditworthiness. Credit control involves the following tasks 4.
Issuing of invoice and collection of funds from customers is the responsibility of sales ledger staff. Sales ledger staff should ensure that customer understands the terms and conditions at the time of issuing invoice. Terms and conditions could include mode of payment, delivery date, early settlement discounts etc. They should also deal with any issues raised by customers in timely manner. Sales ledger staff should follow up overdue debts.
Following are the actions that can be taken: Cost of debt collection should not exceed the amount of debt. You will probably do not understand the text below. However, illustration given at the end will make you accasupport. Trade receivables are usually financed through shortterm source of finance such as overdraft and short-term bank loan.
Financing trade receivables involve financing cost such as interest charge on overdraft and bank loan. In addition, time taken by customers to repay their debt have effect on the profitability of the organization. Interest expense incurred in financing trade receivables will erode profitability. Conversely, savings in interest expense will improve profitability Incremental financing cost is additional cost of interest incurred due to extending credit term.
Reduction in financing cost is savings in cost of interest incurred due to reduction in credit term. Maintaining sales ledger and monitoring customers result in additional cost to the organization. In addition, early settlement discounts give rise to more record keeping and reviewing cost.
Customer may attempt to claim discounts even if they are not entitled. Incremental additional administration cost needs to be taken into account in the evaluation. Reduction is credit term usually leads to savings in administration cost. It is done to improve working capital cycle. Early payment by customers results in savings in finance costs to the organization. However, it results in loss of revenue by the amount of discount offered. Reduction in early settlement discount leads to savings in finance cost.
Saving in financing cost is already accounted for when calculating incremental cost of financing. Now, only incremental cost of early settlement discount should be included in evaluation. Incremental contribution from additional sales needs to be taken account or loss of contribution from reduced sales should be taken into account. Later, can happen rarely, as organization would not evaluate credit policy that will obviously result in reduced sales.
Only incremental contribution is relevant for the purpose of credit policy evaluation. Organization may have estimates available for range of credit terms. Bad debt expense needs to be included in the evaluation of credit policy. Then these savings should be included in the evaluation of credit policy. Required: Evaluate whether the proposed changes in credit policy will increase the profitability of Ulnad Co.
Accountable receivable turnover formula is manipulated to calculate account receivable amount. New trade receivable level under new credit policy. Generally, factoring services are provided by insurance companies and banks. Factor performs following tasks on behalf on organization: accasupport. Factor also deducts its flat fee and percentage of interest on advanced payment made by factor.
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